1.1 Background to the Study
Water is life: adequate supply of water is central to life and civilization. The five basic human needs namely air, water, food, light, and heat. Water is common factor to other four. It is therefore not an understatement to say water is life, because it forms an appreciable proportion of all living things including man. In fact, water is very critical to human life. Water constitutes about 80% of animal cells. The human body by weight consists of about 70% water and several body functions depend on water (Human development report 2006).
According to the popular Nigerian musician Fela Kuti who in his song “water no get enemy” reiterated that all human activities cling on water and that man will go to any length to search for water in times of scarcity and this has proven the slogan “water is life” right. In the third world countries of the world with Nigeria inclusive, the problem of portable water supply in slum area (Kpakungu, Niger State) have poised a lot of challenges with task of collecting water falling largely on women and children and their journey to collect water is long, tiring and often dangerous, it prevents millions of mothers from working and lifting their families out of poverty. It keeps millions of children out school and from playing, depriving them of the wellbeing and education necessary to become healthy adults. Where there are clean water sources, inadequate sanitation threatens them and spreads diseases such as diarrhoea and cholera. People are forced to walk for water because governments fail to prioritise water and sanitation for all (The World Walks for Water, 2010).
According to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Report 2012, 783 million people, or 11% of the global population, remain without access to an improved source of drinking water. Such sources include household connections, public standpipes, boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs and rainwater collections. The world has met the MDGs drinking water target five years ahead of schedule but work is not yet completely done. Also, there are regions particularly delayed such as Sub-Saharan Africa where over 40% of all people without improved drinking water live.
1.2 Problem Statement
Lagos State has witnessed remarkable expansion, growth and developmental activities such as buildings, road constructions, deforestation and many other anthropogenic activities. In this regard lagos state has been facing a lot of problems such as over population, poor water supply and sanitation, environmental problems of air and noise pollution, uncollected refuse, flooding due to inadequacy or absence of drainage facilities in some parts.
1.3 Objective of the study
The major objective of the study is evaluating the problems of water supply in Lagos state.
1.4 Research questions
(1) what is water supply?
(2) what are the sources of water supply in Lagos state?
(3) what are the problems of water supply in Lagos state?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The findings of this research may help in providing access to adequate potable water supply and a better sanitation through the use of research and advocacy. It also help to identify the pattern of access to public water supply and sanitation in Lagos state. So also to create a database of the existing water source and their problems and to identify the problems of water and sanitation in Lagos state.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The research focuses on evaluating the problems of water supply in Lagos State.
The World Walks for Water (2011): at www.worldwalksforwater.com (accessed April 30th, 2011).
UNDP Human Development Report (2006): Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty and the Global Water Crisis. Available at http://hdr.undp.org/hdr2006/ (accessed on 19th September 2012).
United Nations Global Issues (2012): at http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals Accessed September 2012.
B.Adeleye, S.Medayese, O.Okelola. Problems of water supply and Sanitation in Kpakungu Area of Minna (Nigeria). Journal of culture, politics and innovation. 2014,2.