THE EVALUATION OF THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN SOLVING HOUSING PROBLEM IN AWKA-SOUTH LGA OF ANAMBRA STATE
This work is about an evaluation of the role of government in solving housing problems in Anambra state. For many years housing has not receive its deserved attention in this country. Particularly Anambra state due to it popular demand and population it is hoped however that my findings would be of immense interest to the government. The report will form a good reference point of future scholars and government who may wish to conduct similar studies. I have always had this long desire to study to determine the evaluation of the role of government in solving housing problems in Anambra state.
Social scientists are yet to agree on which of the three basic needs of non-shelter, food and clothing which one comes first.
What is beyond debate is the fact that it takes more efforts resources and planning to meet the house needs of every society. In urban centres, provision of recent and affordable accommodation has continued to test the competence of the administrators.
Shelter has been Universally accepted as the second most important essential human need after food. Housing in all ramifications is more than mere shelter since it embraces all the social services and utilities that go to make a community or neighbourhood a liveable environment. In fact, man has been in their need of this essential commodity for his well being even the primitive men could not do without the caves, which provided shelter to them. Indeed, housing is a veritable index of measuring the social economic and technological development of a nation, “show me the quality of your people’s house and I will tell what kind of nation you are” could aptly become a maxim.
The simple refuse affording privacy and protection against the elements is beyond the reach of most members of human race.
In attempt to lessen the housing burden on the populace, various governments in Nigeria at one time to other adopted housing programmes. The policies are directed toward the production and management of climatically, socially and economically suitable housing at an affordable price.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The research was carried out to know the role of government in solving housing problems in Anambra state.
The research opts for the Anambra state housing development corporation as a good case study to review the success of housing for all by the government.
Awka South Local Government Area (LGA) is made up of eight towns, namely Okpuno, Amawbia, Awka, Ezinato, Isiagu, Mbaukwu, Nibo, Nise and Umuawulu.
Awka is the capital of Anambra state and the seat of the government: it is accessible by road from all parts of eastern region states. Nise have notable infrastructure like WAEC (West African examination Council) state head office and St. Paul University College situated there.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Housing is recognized in the world wide as one of the basic necessities of life. As every normal adult is expected to have a house both for himself and his family, but due to economic hardship being experience in the country, this basic necessity of life no longer affordably by greater majority of Nigerians various housing policies and programmes have always been partial if not a failure. It is in this context that the research has decide to carry out a survey work on the role of government in solving housing problem.
- PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Due to the rapid hazardous growth of Anambra state as a result of rapidly growing population, over crowding, environmental condition and the phenomenal changes in economic political and social condition, pose obvious challenges can termed to be as follows.
- The provision of accommodation facilities for the teeming and ever increasing population of the state and it’s environment for commercial and residential purpose.
- To acquire develop hold, manage, sell, loose or let any property moveable within the state.
- Housing the homeless people of the state and providing more reasonable alternatives for those hither to or presently poorly accommodated.
The establishment of a home-ownership saving scheme in respect of any housing estate or building owned, constituted and managed by the corporation. The above mentioned in the aim of every succession government in the state, since the inception of the corporation.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the role of our government in solving housing problems in Anambra state can be summarized as:
- To highlight the role of housing in our society vis-à-vis the problem suffered form shortage and problems of housing provision.
- To analyze the various ways which the government had used and are still using in the provision of housing for the teeming population in Anambra state thereby examining the historical development of government policy in the area of housing.
- To examine critically and analyze the actual problems which are militating against housing production in Anambra state, including focus on their sources of finance and budget allocations.
- To suggest recommendation to the problems. In big cities, like Awka, Onitsha, Enugu, Port-Harcourt, Lagos, etc because of the high influx of people to those cities and the existing housing stock not being able to cope with the increasing population, house rents have been so high, so also land prices and many low quality houses without adequate facilities were quickly springing up.
1.5 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The write up of this thesis is limited to the available data being collected in ministry of works, housing and transport, 5 works roads, Awka, Anambra state. The constraints encountered include that of the department of architecture of the ministry of housing which declined to give out building design and layout for securing purpose.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
Housing is the total unit of shelter and it’s environmental which gives man better quality of life. The term environment in this regard comprises of three groups and this includes natural aspect of environment includes air, water, vegetable and everything natural endowed to man. The artificial aspect is things made or created by man that adds to the beauty of nature and makes life more comfortable for man, these include services such as road, electricity, sewage, pipe borne water etc. as well as other building around.
The final aspect is man himself. Hence, forms of housing can be grouped into or can be traced back to time to the early age, the traditional society, and the modem society. Housing can be looked at as an object where people live or an activity where people undertake.
Turner (1968) refers to housing as a verb and as a noun. As a verb, housing could be seen as an activity i.e people who are in one way or other partake in the building of these houses. The people are the principle actors, as a noun, it could be seen as an object produced by people.
Vagele (1971) said in one of his course paper that decent and adequate human shelter is one of the basic needs of the individuals, the family and the community. as the house and the residential environment have a profound influence on human health, efficiency, social behaviours and satisfaction. It also determines the level of social and economic development of a nation.
Ownership of house is a symbol of prestige and social stature in traditional societies and trends to roster social cohesion and a sense of belongingness. Good housing is essential for human dignity and staff fulfillment. In essence, it provides the physical frame work and the environmental values of man and society are released, enriched and integrated.
The quality and quantity of the housing stock is a reliable barometer for measuring and standard of living the level of technology, culture and civilization of any nation. One of primary indications of the “success” of a country is how it has housed its people. There are three basic physiological needs of human beings namely: food, shelter and clothing.
Housing is a complex. Product providing a combination of services that are crucial to development in both welfare and economic terms and hence the accordance of great importance in national planning and development programmes. Housing must be judged by what it does to people rather than by what it is. Any housing strategy that delivers just houses and structures instead of houses as shelter and services if not meaningful and non-functional of the study.
Government is broadly defined as the administrative group people with authority to govern a political state. Government is the means by which store policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state. A form of state government or form of state government refers to the set of political institutions by which a government of a state is organized. Every successive government is composed of a body of individual who control and exercise control over political decision making. Their function is to make and enforce laws and arbitrate conflicts.
NATIONAL HOUSING POLICY (N.H.P.)
It was approved in 1990 and launched in 1991 with the sole aim of ensuring access to decent accommodation of affordable cost to all Nigerians.
NATIONAL HOUSING FUND (N.H.F)
It encourages the development of specific programmes that would ensure effective financing of housing development in particular low cost housing for low income earners.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
A REVIEWS OF PUBLIC HOUSING DELIVERY IN NIGERIA
State intervention in the form of public housing construction evolved during the period of colonial domination. This policy was exclusively directed at the provision of housing for the white colonial population “settled” in specially protected and developed areas, referred to as government reservation Area (GRA) prohibited to the local population the housing forms and spatial patterns of the GRA’S reflected the English nostalgia for the “garden city”.
The post-independence period saw the development and extensions of the GRAS and the introduction of special public housing programmes exclusively for the needs of the new national elites in the high hierarchy of the state apparatus.
In 1962, National Development plans was introduced into the budgeting system of the country instead of the fiscal and sectoral plans, which were previously used. From the first National Development plan (1962-68) it was the intention or policy of the government that low, medium and high income people should benefit from public housing and programmes of governments. However, the first ten years after independence does not have much to say about government efforts in the provision of public housing in Nigeria.
The first National development Plan (1962-68) mentioned housing as part of industrial estates, land acquisition and town planning. The plan indicated government’s aim of producing 24,000 housing units were built by the federal government before the outbreak of the civil war in 1967. The second National Plan (1970-74) was unique because government accepted as part of its social and political responsibilities. It emphasizes housing provision for all social groups whether displaced or not from the competitive housing market.
2.1 HOUSING SITUATION IN NIGERIA
Nigeria has a land mass of 923,768 square kilometer is with a population of 140,003,542 according to the report of 2005 National Population census. The average population density according to Global strategy for shelter (GSS) is approximately 124 persons per square kilometers making Nigeria one of the most densely populated countries in the world.
Provision of adequate and affordable housing for this figure is a daunting challenges which has made housing an issue of national importance it has been established that the poverty level of most Nigerias made it difficult for them to own houses. Various calls have been made prim successive governemtn in Nigeria to give greater priority to the inherent housing problems. Relatively little continues to be done in improving housing supply in comparison with overall needs. Thus, housing remains one of Nigeria’s most intract able problems; one which is continually getting worse as the rapid population growth and consequent urbvbanizaiton goes on unabated in spite of the seemingly huge assets allocated to this sector. There is dearth of available statistics in Nigeria as regard to quantitative housing needs and housing supplied. Nigeria relies mostly on international organization to obtain statistics needed for ameliorating her housing situation. Few statistics available paint glooming pictures of the housing situation in Nigeria between 1975 and 1980, there was a plan to deliver 202,000 housing units to the public but only 28,500 units, representing 14.1% was achieved. Also, out of 200,000housing units planned to be delivered between 1981 and 1985 only 47,200 reprsenting 23.6% was construcrted. In the Natiional Rolling plan of 1990-92, governemtn promised ot increase housing supply form 4.8 million ot 5.9 million by 2000. the 1991 housing policy estimated that 700,000 housing units are to be built annually if housing deficit is to be cancelled. In summary, it was stated that between 1973 and 2006, the federal housing Authority (FHA) built only 30,000 housing unit nation wife. The FHA estimated tht is construcrted a total of about 10,000 new housing units annually, furthermore, to meet ever-growing demand, the country needs ten times more or at least 100,000 new housing unit annually. The current housing deficit is thus estimated at between 12 million and 16 million homes.
- THE EXPECTED ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT IN HOUSING PROVISION
It is incumbent on the government both at the federal state and local levels to pursue more vigorously housing programme for all categories of the populace to achieve healthier, happier and enviable environment in society.
There are some constraints and obstacles in the provision of housing such as the shortage of manpower, lack of statistical data, implement, management problems, political difference and shortage of funds, etc.
In this, regard, the government is expected to:
- Intensify the use of local materials and indigenous raw materials such as clay, lime, literatim store etc.
- Improvement of rural communities
- Research into building materials
- By making acquisition of land less cumbersome
- Establishment of co-operational and thrift societies
- Scrutinizing the contracting firm
In connection of the expected role of government in solving housing problems, a quick reference is cited on the USA in adopting a number of strategies for solving their housing problems, these include.
- Creation of home loan bank system (1932)
- Creation of homeowner loan corporation (1933)
- Creation of national housing Agency and veteran’s mortgage guarantee programme.
- Establishment of rent supplements and below market interest rates programmes.
Our concern here is with public housing, particularly the way the federal, state and local government in US shared the responsibility of implementing the scheme.
The US has a long history of involvement in subsidized housing. The programme was born in USA in 1934. Now there are more than 900,000 subsidized units (public housing) in USA. In introducing public housing, the federal government initially adopted a strategy of direct construction housing projects.
- THE COLONIAL PERIOD
During the early colonial period that housing activities and policies of government focused on the provision of quarters for the impartial staff and for the selected indigenous staff in specialized occupation like railway, police, army etc. this period saw the establishment of government residential Area (GRA), as well as few “AFRICAN QUARTERS” on effort made by government to build houses either for sale of rent to the general public. The Lagos executives development Board was a result of bubonic plague, which ravaged Lagos in the early 1920. after 1954 and with the approval of the Lagos central planning scheme. The Lagos executive development board for the first time attempted to solve the problems of public housing in the metropolis. The colonial government introduced the African staff housing fund, which was meant to encourage African Civil servants to own their housing. Also prior to independence various state housing corporation was established by the general government to provide housing for the general public. These corporation were unable to extent their service to the low –income group.
- THE POST INDEPENDENCE PERIOD (1960-1979)
During this period, immediately after independence, emphasis was place on the five yearly development plans as the vehicle for economic growth. The housing sector however suffered nearly in the first two plans with the outbreak of the civil war in 1967, the housing situation deteriorated further, in the same period more housing corporations were established in the newly created states. Also, in 1971, the National Council in housing consisting of all state commissioners responsible for housing was established. This market the first significant and direct by the federal government to interview positively in the area of housing. It led 1912 to the establishment of national housing programmes during the second national development through enabling decree intended to construct fifty-nine thousand (59,000) dwelling units with fifteen thousand (15,000) in Lagos and four thousand units in each of the other eleven state capitals. Also in May, 1972 the function of the African staff housing Board for the purpose of granting loans to civil servant to enable them build or purchase their own houses. The loan were subjects to a maximum of forty thousand (40,000) but the unit has since been increase to eighty thousand Naira (80,000). The federal housing Authority was created in 1973 to co-ordinate a nation wide programme.
2.5 THE THIRD NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (1975-1980)
It was the third national development plan (1975-1980) that witnessed the most significant intervention by government in the housing sector. The federal government decide to participate directly and actively in the provision of housing rather leaving it principally to the private sector.
A total of N2.6 billion was embarked for the implementation of the various projects. During this period a total of the two hundred and two thousand 9202000) dwelling units were programmed for construction comprising fifty thousand (50,000) units in Lagos and eight thousand (8,000) units in each of other nineteen states. It is pertinent to note that by end of the plan period, USS than fifteen percent (15%) of the houses were completed.
In 1975, a new federal ministry of housing, urban development and environment was created and change policies.
2.6 HOUSING FINANCE DELIVERY SYSTEM IN NIGERIA
Nigeria present housing finance system in underdeveloped equipped to mobilize and channel saving to housing sector. Although mortgage bank has been created to serve as a wholesale and apex institution other primary mortgage institutions (such as building societies, housing association, etc have not been developed. Thus, the federal mortgage bank has concentrated largely on retail function of lending to individuals.
2.7 NATIONAL HOUSING POLICY AND VISION 2010
Vision cannot articulate of ideas for social benefits with a solid history of the past and present dispensation and mapping out strategies to implement it.
In Nigeria, vision 2010 is aimed at charting economic social and technological goals that would launch us to form the commencement of its operation in 1977 to data, the federal mortgage bank has granted loan value N44 2.6 million to only eight thousand, eight hundred and seventy-four Nigerian. The banks lending practices does not favour low-come households. As such ninety three percent (93%) of loan granted to individual mortgagers has done to middle and upper income house hold.
Given the absence of primary mortgage institution and the competition form commercial banks for resources mobilization, the federal mortgage bank of Nigeria has been unable to mobilize adequate funds for housing sector, apart form the equity capital of N150 million, the bank’s government and the central bank of Nigeria, between 1979-1986 such loan totaled N25.7 million form the central bank
2.8 ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN HOUSING FINANCE
The government has two distinct roles to play in the area housing finances.
- A housing finance system is expected to mobilize saving into mortgage institutions.
- Allocate the supply of loadable fund among house hold to include self-employed and low-income earners.
- Provide incentives for the capital market to invest in property development.
- Provide policy control over the allocation of economic resources between the housing sector and sector of the economy.
- Stimulate the adoption of realistic design for the construction of houses.
- Facilitate into the flow of domestic and international resources into the priority housing area such as low income housing.
2.9 THE LOW INCOME HOUSING
It is difficult to satisfactorily the low-income group however, for the purpose of this policy, the low-income group has been defined as all salary earners and self employed people whose annual income is N5,000 or below as of 1988 or whose annual income is twenty percent (20%) or below the maximum annual income of the highest salary grade level within the civil service structure at any given time whichever is higher.
- STRATEGIES FOR LOW INCOME HOUSING
In view of this federal, state and local government shall pursue the following policy strategies by:
- Making efforts to eliminate the problems associate with finance.
- Encourage the establishment of co-operatives for direct constructions of house and distributions of building materials
- Encourage private and public sector involvement in the direct construction of housing for letting and sale in the urban area.
- Encourage mortgage institution and building societies to grant small loans to low-income group to renovate and upgrade their houses.
2.2.1 STRATEGIES OF GOVERNMENT IN SOLVING HOUSING PROBLEM
The following strategies will be pursued by the government if they need to solve housing problems:
- The government shall establish an appropriate institutional framework to facilitate effective planning in housing development.
- All the existing public institution involved in housing delivery at the federal, state and local government area have to be restructured with a view to making them more effectively functional responsive to the need of Nigerians.
- Encouragement and mobilization of private sector participation in the provision of housing.
- Improve the quality houses in urban areas as a step towards improving the quality of the environment.
- Update low quality houses in urban areas as a step towards improving the quality of the environment.
- Mobilize saving through the establishment of national Housing Fund (N.H.F)
- Restructure the federal mortgage bank of Nigeria to serve as apex housing finance institutions
- Ensure the preparation of a National Housing Plan to spell out the details and strategies for achieving the objective of the housing policy.
AIM & OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The aim of the study is to identity and discuss the evaluation of the role of government in solving housing problem in Awka-South L.G.A Anambra state. It is aimed at identifying the rate of the evaluation of the role of government. In solving housing problem mostly in Awka-South with the following aims.
- To investigate the role of housing development in Awka-south
- To determine the nature of housing in Awka-south
- To determine the quality of buildings in Awka-south. Areas and factors government used in solving problem.
- To ascertain the housing requirement in Awka-south
- To determine to what extent people in Awka-south desire / need and demand for houses.
- To suggest possible solution to the identified problems.