EXPOSITIONS ON THE BODY OF FINAL YEAR RESEARCH PROJECT: THE SCOPE, METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION, METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS AND LIMITATIONS EXPLAINED
Scope of the study:
The scope of the study known as delimitation of the study is what the research project will cover, it defines the extent to which the intended research will cover in other to drive logical from the research will provide satisfactory answers to the research question (s) raised. It is the general parameters under which a research would be performed or what would be covered in the study. Furthermore, scope identifies the boundaries or coverage of the study in terms of subjects, objectives, facilities, area, time frame, and the issues to which the research is focused on.
Methods of data collection:
(NB: This sub-heading comes under chapter one in a qualitative research project) Methods of data collection are systematic and standard procedures for obtaining data. It is the process of gathering and measuring information on targeted variables in an established systematic fashion which than enables one to answer relevant questions and evaluate outcomes. It is not the same with sources of data and should not be confused with that. At this subsection, the researcher is expected to describe the procedural activities in such a detail that an independent researcher can carry out such activities without any independent researcher can carry out such activities without any assistance and execute them exactly in the same way the researcher who planned the study would carry out the study.
Methods of Data Analysis:
(NB: This sub-heading comes under chapter one in a qualitative research project) It is the means of finding and establishing the connections between data and the relationship between variables. According to Unanka (2000:202-203) qualitative data analysis is non-statistical sorting and interpretation of data. Quantitative analysis of data is the use of descriptive, associational and inferential statistics to analyze data. He further explained that in data analysis, data connection and relations between variables may be established in qualitative research analysis by judicious reflection or by statistical correlation and inferences in quantitative research analysis (Unanka, 2002:84).
Akuezuilo and Agu (2002:103) noted that it is concerned with reducing the data collected, after the data gathering exercise to such a size and shape that it can be more easily comprehended as well as to enable the extraction of new information it. Furthermore, Nwana cited in Akuezuilo and Agu (2002:103) explained that analysis of data refers to those techniques whereby the investigator extracts from the data information that was not apparently there before and which would enable a summary description of the subject to be made. The information being referred to here is the information that would enable us answer research questions and/or test research hypothesis.
Limitation of the Study:
This is where the researcher deals with the constraints he or she encountered during the course of his or her study. Every research study has some shortcomings which arise as a result of problems encountered by the researcher in the course of his work. According to Akuezuilo and Agu (2002:188) the shortcoming of the research study is referred to as limitations of the study. The limitations could be due to external forces and sources or could be blame on the researcher. Expatiating further, Obasi (1999:100) buttressed that it refers to the constraints, factors or problems, that in one way or the other affect adversely, the quality of the research in terms of say validity of data collection instruments, or reliability of finding of the study. Or still in terms of generalization utility of findings, amongst others. What may constitute limitations of a study are far and wide and depends on the nature of the study and circumstances surrounding it. it could be material, financial and time resources, low level of cooperation from the respondents, etc.