EXTENT OF THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF HOME ECONOMICS
1.1 Background of the Study
The term Home Economics means home training or skill training. It takes one on welfare of himself and other families. It has been in existent hence mothers train their girls on how to cook and do other work at home artworks, also mothers train their daughter on how to keep houses clean, hair plaiting, decorating home with local paints, body painting, dressing during moon light and festivals also how to make up in other to marry comfortably, while fathers train their son on how to farm and make crafts like baskets and carving art works. As time goes on, it was introduced as domestic studying schools, later to domestic science. On arrival of the white men called missionaries to Nigeria. Though there were no formal schools, they introduced it to be called Home economics, no more domestic science. Since their arrival they introduced it as formal
education. It becomes more than cooking and craft making. And extended into sewing, home management, clothing and textile, and within a short time Nigeria introduced it to primary schools, junior and senior secondary level and today into higher institutions. Today, both sex study home economics because it offer job opportunity. Obiakor (2006) stated that through this philosophy, “home has become the most influential and sweetest of all human institution and organization in shipping the destiny of man. Anyakoha (2010) stated that Home Economics is a method of finding out the need of individual families and finding way of meeting the needs of individuals and families, improving the goods and services which families use, prepare people for family living and prepare people for employment. To enhance an effective teaching and learning of Home Economics, teachers should apply the desirable methodology in teaching Home Economics especially the use of instructional materials, just as Ezeugwu (2009) noted that no subject area which does not make use of instructional materials. These materials enhance learning concepts and events in less time than mere verbalization by involving all the senses. Obanya (1989) view instructional materials as a didactic materials – things which is supposed to make teaching and learning possible.
1.2 Statement of Problem A close look at schools around its today goes to prove a popular opinion or view that the majority of teachers do not use instructional materials effectively for teaching and learning of Home Economics. Tahir (2002) admitted that there is a general lack of instructional materials. Ekpo (2004) aptly declared that instructional materials are often used to compensate for the inadequacies of sense organ or to reinforce the capacity of the dominant organs. They must be relevance for the realization of the intensive of curriculum. Thus there is a short fall in the availability of instructional materials and teachers are unable to improvise with what is available in our environment in other to effectively derive home the lesson thought. Therefore, the inadequacies of sense organs are not compensated. Oforah (2009) state that the outcome of committee of STAN were pupils textbooks, teachers guides etc while Tauari (1998) states that the commission for now can only supply exercise books, chalks and such minor things. Instructional materials are grossly inadequate for effective teaching and learning. Furthermore, Tyler (1950) in his opinion explained that Home Economics Department should have a well organized instructional material corner, units or room where some of the following could be found. Verbal symbols (oral or written), recordings, visual symbols for stimulating interest, realia the real thing or authentic materials Dale (1959), Television, it made educational experiences which are beyond the reach of the classroom available to the students.
1.3 Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study are to: 1 Determine the extent of the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Home Economics. 2 Identify the problems associated with the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Home Economics.
3 Enlighten people on the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Home Economics.
1.4 Significance of the Study This study will be of significance to the following: 1. It will serve as a reference point on the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Home Economics. 2. The study will bring awareness to the government curriculum planners and other stakeholders in the area on the necessity in provision of adequate instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of Home Economics. 3. It will make educational experience which are beyond the reach of classroom available to student of Home Economics. 4. It will provide a guide to the appropriate use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Home Economics.
5. The study will also create awareness on the benefit of the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Home Economics.
1.5 Research Questions 1. To what extent is the use of instructional materials effective for teaching and learning of Home Economics? 2. What are the problems that are associated with the use of instructional materials in the effective teaching and learning of Home Economics?
3. How much awareness is being created for the people on the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Home Economics?
1.6 Scope of the Study
Few selected schools in Awgu Local Government area were studied. This will be made up of combination of government owned schools. The names of the government owned schools includes: C.S.S. Mmaku, Rosary High School Awgu and Boys Secondary School Awgu. While the private owned schools includes: Presentation secondary school Awgu and Alpha secondary school Awgu. This scope of study are selected/chosen so as to help solve financial limitation/problems.
1.7 Definition of Terms Conceptual And Operational Definition Instructional materials – conceptual – Teaching aids which can also be referred to as instructional aids, teaching materials which appeal to all sense and felling and aid learning. Operational – Course of study, syllabus, curriculum, bulletins, guides, handbooks, research reports, audio visual aids and other materials which serve as a teacher’s educational function. Home Economics – Conceptual – An interdisciplinary field of study which help families and individuals to understand and adopt to the social economics, culture and technological changes.