Extraction and Characterization of Essential Oil from Ginger for Formulation of Perfume

Abstract

This study extracts, characterize essential oil from ginger and formulates perfume using the ginger oil with other essential oil as the fragrance. The oil was extracted from ginger using solvent extraction method and was accurately characterized. The parameter used for characterization and their values are as follows Acid Value- 7.293%, free fatty acid-3.6465ml, saponification value 483.8625mlequ/kg, specific gravity o.9417g/ml, peroxide value 9m/equ/kg, Iodine value 0.3mgNaoH/g and refractive index 1.4642. The percentage yield of the oil is 7% i.e 1.5kg of dry ginger yields 120ml of oil. Perfume was formulated by dissolving perfume ingredients including ginger oil in ethyl alcohol and allowed to aged for two weeks. Perfume formulation has rose oil as the top note, ginger oil as the middle note and lavender oil as the base note. Ethyl alcohol became the vehicle having value of 80%. Other ingredients used in the formulation has their values as follow; rose oil 3.5%, ginger oil 6%, lavender oil 3.5%, avon oil 2%, coumarin 3%, fixative 1%, vitamin E 1% “Eau de parfum” (A type of perfume) was produced. Comparisons with champion (a market perfume) shows little variation between the two perfume though the ginger perfume is still within S.O.N’s standard for perfume. The perfume is recommended to lovers of perfume those whose use is to improve their body scent.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title            i

Certification    ii

Dedication       iii

Acknowledgement    iv

Abstract            v

Table of Contents   vi

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction 1

Background of the Study    1

1.2   Statement of the Problem    5

1.3   Objective of the Study      6

1.4   Significance of the Study   6

1.5   Scope of the Study          7

CHAPTER TWO

2.0   Literature Review          8

2.1   Classification             8

2.1.1 Mineral Oil                8

2.1.2 Animal Oil                 8

2.1.3 Plant Oils                 9

2.2   Essential Oils             10

2.3   Sources of Essential Oils   11

2.4   Ginger (Zingiber Officinale)     12

2.5   Types of Perfume     12

2.6   Fragrance Notes        15

2.7   Perfume’s Fixatives     17

2.8   Common Perfume Ingredients     31

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   Materials and Methods        22

3.1   Materials                    22

3.2   Collection of the Sample     24

3.2.1 Ginger Collection            24

3.2.2 Collection of other Perfume Ingredients    24

3.3   Preparation of the Sample      24

3.4   Extraction of Ginger Oil       25

3.5   Characterization of the Ginger Oil       26

3.6 Perfume Formulation            30

3.7   Perfume Test                 30

3.7.1 Skin Patch Test             31

3.7.2 Test for Strength            31

3.7.3 Stability Test               32

3.8   Comparative Test on Ginger Perfume and

Champion Perfume                   32

3.8.1 Determination of PH        32

3.8.2 Determination of Electrical Conductivity          33

3.8.3 Determination of Turbidity       34

3.8.3 Determination of Viscosity      34

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0   Results                         35

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0   Discussion, Recommendation and Conclusion   37

5.1   Discussion                37

5.2   Recommendation            38

5.3   Conclusion                39

References                     40