FEDERALISM AND NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
The problem of federalism and the associated crises of national integration in Nigeria raise serious alarm. The situation attracts growing interest and concern. The crises are very severing such that they culminate in a strong force being mounted on the federation with tendency to disintegrate the country. The works addresses this phenomenon by investigating and analysing the problem. Documentary research method is used in gathering and analysing data. So textbooks, journals, periodical publications by related government agencies formed necessary source of our data while we employed system theory for pour analytical framework. The work identifies the method of revenue allocations as the major factor responsible for the crises of national integration in the Nigerian federalism. It concludes that in face in this problem, harmonious unification or integration cannot take place, political system cannot successfully adapt to both internal and external environment such that the survival of the system is difficult. The work recommends among others that federalism is the ultimate solution to the problems of national integration, so federal character and other related approaches should be effectively enforced. Again the current unjustifiable method of revenue allocation should be reformed to reflect justice, equity and fairness.
Table of contents
Title Page i
Approval Page ii
Table of Contents: vii
Chapter One: Introduction
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Statement of Problem 2
1.2 Objective of Study 4
1.3 Significance of Study 5
1.4 Literature Review 6
1.5 Theoretical Framework 13
1.6 Hypotheses 15
1.7 Method of Data Collection/ Analyses 16
1.8 Limitation of Study 17
1.9 Conceptual Definitions 17
Chapter Two: Revenue Allocation and the Problem of National Integration in Nigeria Federalism
2.0 Revenue Allocation and the Crises of National integration
In Nigerian Federalism: 20
2.1 Resource Allocation 20
2.2 Northern Domination and the Bogey of Power Sharing 24
2.3 Inequality created by Ethnicity 27
2.4 Structural imbalance and the issue of Restructuring 30
Chapter Three: Federalism and the Problem of National Integration in Nigeria
3.0 Federalism and the problem of National integration 33
3.1 National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) 34
3.2 The Federal character Principle 37
3.3 The Creation of States 39
3.4 The Mass Mobilization for Social Justice, Self Reliance and Economic Recovery (MAMSER) 43
Chapter Four: Religious and Ethnic Loyalties and National integration
4.0 Religious and Ethnic Loyalties and National integration 46
4.1 Inter ethnic Rivalries and National integration in Nigeria 46
4.2 Religious Loyalties and National integration 48
Chapter Five: Summary/Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary 51
5.2 Conclusion 53
5.3 Recommendation 54
The crises of national integration in Nigeria are very severing such that the Nigerian federation is at its collapsing point. The heterogeneous nature of the country combines with the improper mode of the country’s formation gave rise to antagonistic and integrative processes.
Nigeria as a country came into corporate existence in 1914, as a result of the fusion between the northern and southern protectorates by the British. National integration is the ultimate goal to be achieved in a multi ethnic country like Nigeria for there to be any reasonable development.
According to Chime, [1971.50], national integration is a process of cohesion between two or more social units, whereby these units come together to constitute a political whole which include among other things the joining of various parts of society into a functioning whole, the growth of obedience and loyalty to its pars and the emergence of shared national values. It follows, that Nigeria would have received national unity where obedience and loyalties to the Nigerian state, transcend loyalties to its parts. Thus conceptualization implies social equality of citizens.
Federation is a system of government adopted to enhance national integration in Nigeria; it is also a form of government that defines the relationship between component parts assumed to have the potential for integrating diverse cultural societies. The religions rather engage in ethnicity, political struggle by social classes, religious conflict etc, which culminate in the crises of national integration that reached climax during the period of the attempted secession and civil war.
1.1 Statement of Problem
Nigeria is essentially a plural society, its component groups are separated apart from each other by significant differences of language, ethnicity, and cultures of Nigeria created differences in attitude, outlook and character.
Faced with these problems, Nigeria adopted federalism as a means of achieving its much needed goal of national integration. In essence the federalism so adopted is expected to reduce the immensely aggressive inter ethnic competition and tension, allay the usually alleged fear of domination, bringing government nearer to the people and give the different groups more opportunities, thereby integrating the country.
Federation requires decentralization of power among the component units. It also requires that no component unit should be as large in size as to eliminate others. The case of Nigeria shows that power is concentrated in the central government. On the other parts, there exist structural imbalance between the northern, the east and west of Nigeria. This situation therefore by majority, political power is proportionately in favour of the north above other religions. The issue of revenue allocation in Nigeria is not without its own problems. As if all these problems are not enough for Nigeria federalism, the issue of on shore offshore dichotomy and equally the alarm raised about the marginalization from all religion in Nigeria are by setting the unity of the country.
We can summarily state the under following as our research questions.
1. Is the method of revenue allocation the major factor responsible for the crises of national integration in the Nigerian federalism?
2. Could the practice of true federalism in Nigeria alleviate the problem of national integration?
3. Could religion and ethnic loyalties be a major challenge in national integration in Nigeria?
1.2 Objectives of the Study
The research is set out to among other things
1. To find out the relationship between revenue allocation and national integration in Nigeria.
2. To discover if the operation of true federalism in Nigeria could help in tackling the problems.
3. To inquire into the impact of religions and ethnic loyalties and national integration in Nigeria.
1.3 Significance of the Study
It has become obvious that Nigeria cannot make any meaningful progress in the absence of unity. Some founding fathers of Nigeria adopted federalism as a pragmatic instrument for the achievement of the goal of national unity. The rationale was to see if there could be unity in diversity which means that there could be ways of bringing diverse ethnic groups into a modern nation. However, amidst all the efforts, the goals of national integration are not yet possible owing to the numerous problems inherent in Nigeria federalism.
It is therefore the task of this work to contribute in no little measure to the solution of the problem of national integration. Apart from thus, the work will equally add to the volumes of research materials available for further work on federalism and national integration in Nigeria.