FORMULATION OF ARTIST PAINT – APPLIED CHEMISTRY PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS
This study was carried out principally for the formulation of artist paint using available raw materials. Paint simplified is a material which may be applied to surfaces in relatively thin layers and which changes to a solid and may occur by evaporation of solvents, by chemical reaction or by combination of the two. Artist paint is the paint used by artists to do their paintings. These paints comprises of the water color paint, poster color paint, oil paint, acrylic paint and so on. The method generally used in this work was first, the collection of pigment of different colors, grinding the gypsum and then mixing of the substances. After which the substances was thoroughly stirred for proper mixture and so as to obtain finely non-granulated paint. The product is much highly efficient than individual paints. And it is cheaper to operate from this project. It is quite possible to harness our natural endowment that will compete prodigiously with one produced abroad, hence, our artists will do her expensive painting and the need to import artist’s paints will be avoided.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
1.1 Properties of Artist Paint
1.2 Aim and Objective
1.3 Statement of Problem
1.4 Justification of Study
1.5 Limitation of the Study
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Kinds of Artist Paint
2.2 Properties of the Backbone Composition of Artist Paint
2.3 The Backbone Composition
2.4 The Characteristics Features of the Backbone Composition of Artist Paint
2.5 Principles Guiding an Effective Artist Paint Formulation
3.1 Raw Materials and Equipment
3.3 Percentage Measurement of Materials Used
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
Paints usually consists of finely powdered insoluble materials, chiefly pigments, (which contributes opacity, color, and hardness and bulk to the film, suspended in a liquid binding medium known as a vehicle or binder, and a solvent or thinner which controls the consistency.
1.1 PROPERTIES OF ARTIST PAINT
Artist paints, water color in particular are made by grinding in a gum Arabic binding medium, together with certain necessary modifying ingredients. Glycerin and honey or sugar syrup (plasticizers) are often added in order to keep the colors from becoming mouldy and a wetting agent (such as ox gall) to make the colors “ take” well and spread uniformly on the paper. The proposition of the binder to the pigment is carefully balanced to give the pain, the exact correct properties. Upon application of the paints, the tiny grains of pigment become embedded in the coarse meshes of the paper, and this action is of as much importance in holding the color to the paper as he adhesive action of the gum binder.
The careful balance of the modifying ingredients in artist paint is necessary not only to give the correct working properties, but to ensure the proper balance of solubility that is the dried layer of a good artist paint must be sufficiently resistant so that subsequent brush strokes will not pick it up. On the other hand, the paint should not be so insoluble that one can not soften or run into it. Aqueous paints contain much less surplus binder. Unlike oil paint, the bulk of the paint – the water –evaporates completely on drying, leaving the pigment particles exposed partially to the air. This is not only causes brightness of lives and a mathe effect, but also eliminate a good many ill to which improperly painted oils are subject. However to achieve a performance a different set of precaution is necessary, because the colors are inherently less resistant to atmospheric conditions.
Water colors paintings leaves a very thin layer of pigment particles sufficiently held together to be a permanent coating. This thin layer or film, in contrast to the heavy of oil paint’s defects, such as cracking, peeling or blistering even so watercolors can be just oils if properly preserved.
In other to produced artist paint, many factors need to be considered.
– condition of watercolor paint in the container
– opacity and spreading rate
– drying time
– Fastness to light i.e. the paint shall have little or no color change.
– Financers of curing i.e. when tested using “Hegman lange”, the paint shall be finely ground to a max of less than 10 mirons (-10um)
– Bend tester: when tested the paint film shall not show cracking or loss of adusion.
– Resistant to mould, insects.
The artists paint has to be formulated such that its composition has to be one that performs its specific functions under the stated condition.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
This work is aimed at developing an economic and indigenous way of producing artist paint using local /available raw materials in the best interest of small scale industries thereby conserving the foreign exchange earnings. Also, to provide an alternative source of raw materials for the formulation of artist paint. This will in a very large measure and in minimizing the importation from abroad.
Finally, an attempt is made at formulating specific brands of artist paint from available raw materials using standard procedure.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
This study centers on the formulation of artist paint (watercolors) from available raw/local materials. In Nigeria all artist paints in use today are imported either as finished or semi- finished product. Even the ones attempted to be formulated locally are still based on synthetic raw materials which are also imported. This is rather unfortunate considering the numerous natural sources locally available from which the basic raw materials for the production of artist paint can be obtained.
Due to the increasing interest by art students and people who love art work (paintings)alike, in the country, the nee artist for its production from local or available raw materials like gypsum, honey, gum aerobic, pigment (natural)and so on, in order to reduce the cost of buying from abroad and subsequent importation into the country.
1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
This work is designed towards providing an alternative source of raw materials for the formulation of artists point. This will in a very large measure aid in minimum if not stopping entirely, the present importation syndrome which does not only constitute a severe drain in our economy but also turn our country into feile dumping ground for substandard quality and even very expensive artists paint making art painting expensive to purchase, and it will create job opportunities for the producers even the graduate in he country.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This work is limited to the use of available raw materials for study. This work is also limited to the study by traveling to places like Asaba where gypsum is located Ekiti and Kano where raw pigment is gotten, Lagos etc where the materials needed are naturally located. The scope was also limited by problem of proximity, that is getting through to the foreign manufacturers was not possible for me and there are no known factories in Nigeria that manufacturers artists paints so as to get the appropriate /standard specifications for formulation. This work was limited by time factor; with examination approaching and intensified constant lectures one has to battle with the problem of limited time in carrying out the research that would have given it a perfect finish.
Bruce, M.E, (2004) Paints – How Watercolor Paints Are Made, 5th Ed; USA; PP. I22
Debussy, J.H, (1972) Materials and Technology Volume TV. United States and The Philippines – Barnes And Noble Books, Longman Group Ltd PP. 687 – 688.
Goodier, J.N, (1974) Dictionary of Painting and Decorating Griffin London, PP
Herman F. Mork, G. Gaylord Norman and M.Bi Kales Norbert (1970) Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology Volume 10 And 13, Interscience Publishers A Division Of John Wiley And Sons, Inc PP. 170 – 192, 492 – 510
Torche J.H, Ed. D. (1971) Acrylic and Other Water – Base Paints For the Artists, 4th Ed, New York, Sterling Publishing Co, Inc. PP 5-19
McGraw, Hill (1971) Encyclopedia of Sciences and Technology, Volume TX, United States, McGraw Hill, Inc. PP 558 – 559.
Morgan’s W.M. P.H.D; F.R.T.C, (1969) Outlines Of Paint Technology Charles Griffin And Company Limited 42 Drury Lane, London, W.C. 2 PP 91, 127 And 130.
Photos from the Old Holian watercolor paint catalogues