THE APPLICATION OF GEO-SPATIAL INFORMATION SYSTEM
Health care is one of the fastest growing industries in Nigeria, and the hospital is the corner stone of the health care industry, there is over 6,500 hospitals in this country, and their services are expanding with corresponding increase in cost.
The health care industry and its hospital component employ more than 3 million fulltime equivalent employees. The nations total health care bill amount to N150.4 billion 10.6% of the nation gross national product which is the equivalent of Nigeria spending more than N1 billion each day on their health care. (Health Care Administration UUTH).
Historically, in Akwa Ibom State, hospitals were developed as voluntary free standing units. The traditional systems of healthcare delivery was network of private physicians, groups practices, clinic, hospital intended care and treatment decision were made primarily by physicians on a free-for-services basis, thus most patient had little, if any to contribute in their medical treatment decision.
Hospitals were in control of the system over the last 20 years, because they had financial security under the federal and the state reimbursement system of medical care and medical aids (health care administration principles and practice).
In recent years, a lot of money have been voted for the industry which have experienced major difficulties in maintaining their autonomy and financial security. For many reasons, the health care delivery system in the state is evolving into a highly competitive and extremely volatile industry. Recent legislative and regulatory changes in the state have placed limits on the amount of government fundings on health care service thus many hospitals and private clinics do not have adequate capital resources to renovate or replace outdated facilities nor invest in expensive medical technology.
With recent changes that is permeating every aspect of the healthcare industry, hospital management board have realized the need for diversification and re-organization as an important tools for the development and structuring of the ministry.
This has made the hospital management board to effectively seek for a better plan so as to meet the objectives of the sector.
This project considers the application of geospatial information system (GIS) as a decision support tools in health information management (HIM). This involves a wide variety of functions that are critical to the operation of the healthcare in each local government area in the state.
Geospatial information system as a computer based technology and methodology for collecting, managing, analyzing, modeling and presenting a geospatial and non spatial data for a wide range of application (Davis 2001),With Geospatial Information System, decision makers can locate, create and maintain accurate and comprehensive spatial data base and records. These database records are quite invaluable in tracking the inventory of every health institution in the state.
This database can also be used to generate a demographic map of the present and future availability of any health institution. With GIS, a common platforms can be developed for convergence of multi diseases, in standardized georeferencing of epidemiological data, the process provides an excellent means of analyzing epidemiological data, revealing trends, dependencies and interrelationships that would otherwise remain hidden in data shown only in tabular format.
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
It is common to hear pertinent complaining about non availability of medical staff in some hospitals, and insufficient drugs for the patient consumption in the health care and clinics. These trends start from the village level. This is a result of the decision makers having little or no adequate information concerning the institution and the population figure in the area.
Legislative regulation for the distribution of facilities and medical aids have become a major issue in the healthcare industry. Hence the need to access monitor and evaluate a suitable approach for each institution using geospatial information system.
Using geospatial information system technology for the management of the healthcare industry enables the health administrators to integrate location base data into demographic analysis, such as;
Management process in legislative planning and operating .
Equity in the distribution of drugs
Improve productivity of all health workers?
Improve utilization of healthcare resources
Improve quality of care
Others planning and problem solving tasks.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH
The broad aim of this project is to demonstrate the application of geospatial information system as a decision support tool in legislative regulatory planning and management of health institution in the state.
The objectives include;
To identify and spatially locate the healthcare institution and facilities in each of the study areas.
To delineate the coverage of the catchments area of each of the healthcare institutions
to identify villages and settlement that are not covered with health care facilities
To suggest a possible location for healthcare institution.
To demonstrate how this information can be synthesized to support the planning and decision making needs of the public health sector.
1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The research considers the following local governments, namely, Eket, Esit Eket, and Onna with the aim of carrying out a comparative study among them.
This work also intends to determine the health administrators regulatory involvement in drugs distribution, base on the population figures and personnel available in the study area.
Also this work covers the aspect of the healthcare management in terms of spatial database creation, data management analyse and modeling.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Management planning is a key issue in the delivery of the healthcare services, a good management design is not just desirable, but a consistence development that needs to pass through one step to the other. It is a pre-requisite for the workable cost effective for the health care administrators.
The continuous increase in the demand for the healthcare services in Nigeria is a result of corresponding increase in affected person by many unknown or newly diagnose disease. Bearing in mind the competitive environment in which these services are provided, healthcare administrators therefore needs a more effective and efficient approach to.
Improve availability of appropriate information for decision making
Improve productivity of all health workers.
Improve new healthcare facilities
Expand the existing healthcare institutions.
Improve quality of the healthcare delivery. From the above, there is need to ensure adequate models and effective maintaining techniques by using a dynamic information base, thus spatial analytical tool becomes imperative.
1.5 THE STUDY AREA
The study area of the project work is Eket, Esit Eket, Onna Local Government area of Akwa Ibom state. The area is bounded in the western coastal region of the state. Their terrain is relatively flat with height in the range of 60m above mean sea level. (Mbeke 2005).
The 2006 national population census put the population distribution of the study area of about 172,557, 63,707 and 123,373 respectively. The area comprises of villagers and wards were all the health institution are being sited.
The study area basically is where Industries and company, such as ALSCON EXXON – Mobil and other small companies are located. Most importantly, it is a result of enormous industrial pollution and prevalence disease affecting these areas that attributed the choice of this areas for studies.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ARCVIEW: This is one of the GIS software used in processing, designing and processing of geospatial data
HMIS: Health Information Management System
MIS: Management information system
DATA: These are raw collection of facts
DBMS: Database management system digitizing. The process of converting analogue maps and other sources of data to a computer readable form.
Data Directory: A folder or area on the hard drive of your computer or your networks computer that is available and data that you create geospatial information system (GIS):an organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data, and personal designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyse and display all forms of geographically referenced information.
Hardcopy: a copy of textual or graphic information produced our paper.
Identifier Or Label: these are tags attached to individual entity of GIS coverage.
One to One: This is a relationship whereby one primary key relates with one foreign key.
One to Many: A relationship of one primary key connecting many foreign keys.
Primary Key: This is a field that identifies a record in a table uniquely. Frequently it is a separate field added to each record.
Raster: Data expressed as an array of pixels with spatial position implicit in the ordering of the pixels
SQL: Structural query language.
Theme: A data layer relating to a specific subject or topic of interest
Thematic Layers: a logical separation of geographical information such that each layer represent a different them. For example a composite digital map may consist of a land boundaries layer, rivers and streams layers, roads layers etc.
Topology: is an impact the mathematical method used to define spatial relationships. Topology describes the spatial relationship of geographical features such as point, lives and polygons to other features.
VECTOR: positioned data on the from of coordinate of the ends of lives segments, points text position etc.
Epidemiological data: the scientific process and study of the spread and control of diseases.