The Impact of Globalization on Nigeria
As a member of the international community, Nigeria is not shielded from globalization. However, the country is exposed to both the positive and negative effects of globalization. This paper examines the negative effects of globalization on Nigeria by focusing on its impact on science and technology and the environment. It argues that although globalization presents many opportunities, it also exposes developing countries like Nigeria to many new challenges. The paper also suggests ways by which the negative effects of globalization can be addressed.
One of the most popular concepts in recent times is globalization. Globalization is a complex and multifaceted concept that has generated controversy from its meaning, its time line, its future as well as whether it is serving the interest of all or it is benefiting just a few countries or individuals in the world. Due to the fact that it cuts across almost all disciplines, each of the disciplines proffers varying definitions and interpretations for the concept. Although the existence of globalization has been demonstrated in empirical case studies, its definition still remains vague, elusive, and even contradictory. The lack of an essential definition has contributed, at least partially, to keep globalization as a highly contested subject (Acosta and Gonzalez, 2010). Cesare Poppi (1997:300) notes that:
The literature stemming from the debate on globalization has grown in the last decade beyond any individual’s capacity of extracting a workable definition of the concept. In a sense, the meaning of the concept is self-evident, in another, it is vague and obscure as it reaches are wide and constantly shifting. Perhaps, more than any other concept, globalization is the debate about it.
Shenkar and Luo (2004: 199) refer to globalization as “the growing economic interdependencies of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services and of international capital flows, as well as through the rapid and widespread diffusion of technology and information.” Globalization involves economic integration; the transfer of policies across borders; the transmission of knowledge; cultural stability; the reproduction, relations, and discourses of power; it is a global process, a concept, a revolution, and an establishment of the global market free from sociopolitical control. It has helped to liberalize national economics by creating a global market place in which all nations must participate directly or indirectly: This undoubtedly led to growing activities and power of international financial investors mainly presented by multi-national corporations (Jaja, 2010).
Although many scholars focus on the economic dimension, the process of globalization is not restricted to the economic sphere alone. It also has social, political, environmental, cultural, religious dimensions, among others. As pointed out by Tony Schirato and Jan Webb (2003), “globalization is a process integrating not just the economy but, culture, technology and governance”.
Advances in technology such as global telecommunication infrastructure, cross border data flow, the Internet, satellite networks and wireless telephones are all credited to globalization. Computers, mobile phones, and the Internet have brought about major transformation in world communication. In fact, it is not only that communication across the globe has been made easier by this technology, apparently, countries without this technology is more or less excluded from world development.
Also, improvements in transportation have resulted in a dramatic decline in the costs of transporting goods by air, water, and, land. However, some writers characterize globalization as the third phase of colonization, the second phase being neo-colonialism. On this view, Western countries are employing globalization to extend and strengthen the fundamentally exploitative relations established between colonial powers and the colonized over the past 400 years (Mulinge and Munyae, 2001: 113). Industrialized countries are essentially entrenching a global capitalist system and consumer culture by establishing a global market controlled by the most dominant interests within the ruling elites of these multinational companies.
It is in the light of these that this paper examines the negative effects of globalization on Nigeria. It argues that although globalization presents many opportunities, it also exposes developing countries like Nigeria to many new challenges.
The Goals of Globalization
Iyayi (2004: 24) posits that globalization “has been used rather loosely to stand for a variety of things: the shrinking of the world into a global village, the awesome changes brought about or mandated by the revolution in information technology, the collapse of boundaries between different worlds, expanding connectivity of all forms of interaction.” Scholte (1997) argues that globalization facilitates the removal of barriers among nations of the world, thereby giving social relations unhindered access. The unique characteristics of globalization often includes increased capital mobility, decline in costs of transportation, computing and communications. Other aims of globalization from the economic perspective include: (a) internationalization of production accompanied by changes in the structure of production, (b) expansion of international trade and services, and (c) widening and deepening of international capital flows (Mrak, 2000). All these imply a more connected world.
In essence, globalization has a major aim; the diffusion of the cultures, commerce and communication of countries of the world in order to bring about homogenization. Globalization reveals the interconnectedness within and across regions of the world due to the growing social, economic, political networks, education, information, and communications technology of different groups of people. It reveals the extent to which the actions of one group of humans exert either positive or negative impact on others (Adjibolosoo, 2007: 9). And, in line with Giddens’ (1990: 64) definition of the concept as “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa”, things that happen on one side of the planet may likely affect those on the other side of the planet, vice versa”, while those things an individual does in his own community can have a world-wide impact.
Effects of Science and Technology in Nigeria
Science and technology are two of the most potent forces in human society. Historically, man has always made various attempts to transform the natural world in which he finds himself. Through science and technology, man has been able to create devices, tools and machines through which the threats of the society are being subdued and brought under his control.
Scientific globalization is the medium through which the science research front is now universally accessible, so that the practice of science now has hardly any geographical boundaries, while technological globalization leads to the creation of uniform technical specifications and standards in industry. It is driven by the need to create wider markets especially for hi-tech goods. It leads to operational compatibility of equipment from different manufacturers. It also simplifies engineering design (Maduemezia, 2002: 2).
However, though science and technology are meant to transform and improve the quality of life of people as well as help in providing solutions to many of the problems being faced in the world, Nigeria is beset with a number of challenges in this regard. Some of the challenges brought by science and technology will be examined here.
World Wide Web – The Internet
Information and communication technology (ICT) is playing a key role in globalization and integration. It has facilitated the heralding of a “Third Wave”, comparable to the First Wave, the Agricultural Revolution and the Second Wave, the Industrial Revolution. The world is shifting from a manufacturing-based industrial economy to a service-dominated and network-based knowledge economy (Mohanty, 2005: 2). Information and communication technology (ICT) is emerging as an important catalyst for transformation of business, society, and government in the globalizing world. Today ICT forms the “backbone” of several industries, such as television, camera, car, and mobile telephone. ICT has facilitated packaging of information and sending the same across the world at negligible cost.
The Internet has opened up a vast array of possibilities worldwide. It has become a key element in what is seen as the globalization of society, providing technology that recognizes no national boundaries, that has no single owner, and that is not regulated or controlled by any single national or international legal framework. Kaiser admits the centrality of the internet to globalization. According to him;
…the internet is the turbo charger of globalization. By radically facilitating outsourcing, The internet is the turbo charger of globalization. By radically facilitating outsourcing, management, regulation, logistics, just-in time controlling, and business-to-business and business-to-consumer contacts, it has revolutionized in a manner that we could not have imagined until recently, the internationalization of production (Jaja, 2010: 115).
The Internet is a very powerful tool with two basic distinct characteristics. The first is that it contains the biggest, richest and wide ranging resource of information in the entire world, and secondly, it enables people to obtain an interactive mechanism to instantly communicate with each other. It provides a transparent window through which global experiences and best practices are shared. It enables knowledge-networking, learning, saving costs of trial and error, and avoiding uncertainties. Knowledge is power and information is the key to knowledge. ICT facilitates data information transmission, knowledge acquisition, dissemination and creation of a value chain. International exchanges act as conduits for knowledge transfer. Knowledge-intensive sectors like education, health and bio-technology hold promises of phenomenal growth due to the advances in ICT. Developing countries need not re-create costly knowledge; they have the advantage of acquiring and adapting knowledge already available in the richer countries (Jaja, 2010).
However, in as much as the Internet provides enormous convenience as well as propels the nation’s economy, the Internet which is an open, free and unregulated device has also brought with it negative challenges that cannot be overlooked. The Internet is known to corrupt the minds of people. It also influences and change people’s moral perspectives and ethical values.
One major negative consequence of ICT most especially the internet and cable networks to Nigeria is the exposure of the youth to negative western culture. Charles Omekwu (2006) captured this thus:
The more dangerous dimensions of the digital revolution include pornography, money laundering, cultism, international terrorism and child abuse, which all constitute a threat to African cultural heritage. It is extremely difficult for African countries with strong Islamic and Christian cultures to tolerate the level of pornographic activities that go on the Internet. In traditional African culture, nudity is still not a virtue. In many African universities and urban centres, nudity has become and Africa’s rich and elegant dress style are becoming outdated.
Most Nigerian youth are now hooked on to weird western cultures emulated through these media that alienate them further from their traditional roots. Mode of dressing expressed through the exposure of various parts of the body is now a common occurrence among the youth. The guys do what is referred to as ‘sagging’, whereby the trousers is no longer worn around the waist but would be hanging on the buttocks thereby exposing their ‘designer’ underwear. For the ladies, they indulge in wearing of clothes that expose their breasts in order to conform to their new found culture. The use and abuse of drugs, use of arms and ammunitions, promiscuity, exposure to pornography and various other negative lifestyles are often a fall out of accessibility to the internet and cable channels. Unfortunately, indigenous languages which are the most effective method of transmitting culture are increasingly becoming extinct.
Also, the Internet provides the opportunity for the proliferation of cyber-crime, which is a global phenomenon, and Nigeria is not immune from it. The perpetrators of this crime, which is often referred to as ‘419’, ‘yahoo yahoo’ or ‘yahoo plus’ are usually the criminal minded youth and several thousands of unemployed in the country.
In fact, Nigeria has become synonymous with these tags that even several non-Nigerians that have been caught at first claim to be Nigerians before they are thoroughly investigated and found out. Many of these fraudsters patronize cyber cafes, browsing all night, sending scam mails to unsuspecting victims. The activities are carried out in various dimensions, ranging from soliciting for money, illegal businesses and even relationships and marriages.
Many foreigners, especially women, who are seeking for spouses via the Internet have been known to have falling victim of the so called ‘yahoo boys’. They pretend to be ready to go into a lasting relationship with these women and subsequently start to exploit them. Some of them get their victims to help in procuring travel documents to where they reside or even to assist in getting residential permits for them. Once they have been able to achieve their aims, they stop communicating with the victim and move on to another target. Many of the victims just lick their wounds and carry on with life, but some of the very bitter ones report to the appropriate authorities who often apprehend and prosecute the suspects.
In essence, all the above are a fall out of globalization. The accessibility, anonymity and global reach of the Internet continue to make cyber-crime a very lucrative business, which may likely continue for a very long time.
Scourge of HIV/AIDS
By all accounts, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and its disease manifestation, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), present an unprecedented crisis in the history of Africa and, have become a social and economic catastrophe. Every day, millions of Africans, in every strata of society, are infected with the HIV virus and every day, millions die (Stone, 2002). HIV/AIDS is perceived as a product of globalization and is considered not only as the greatest global health pandemic but also as the biggest “development challenge” of the twenty first century. It does not discriminate, and it affects all strata of the population, hence, its impact far exceeds that of other communicable diseases combined because, there is no available cure or vaccine. It affects the most economically productive sector of the population and threatens development achievements in many countries of the world.
At a Special Summit held in Abuja, Nigeria from April 26-27, 2001, Heads of State and Governments of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) met to review and critically assess the HIV/AIDS challenges facing Africa. They declared, “AIDS as a State of Emergency on the continent”, and vowed to make the battle against HIV/AIDS the “highest priority in their respective national development plans.” Also, the United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan declared the HIV/AIDS situation in Africa as catastrophic and called for a Special Session of the General Assembly (UNGASS) in New York, which was held from June 25-27, 2001. The UNGASS addressed these issues and created the Global Fund for AIDS and health, to finance intensified activities around the world (particularly in Africa), in attempts to curtail the continuing and accelerated spread of the epidemic (UNGASS, 2001).
Nigeria is one of the worst hit by HIV/AIDS on the African continent. It is estimated that about 3.1 million Nigerians are infected with the disease, meaning that Nigeria has the second largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa and the highest in West Africa (Obinna, 2011). The spread of the disease is being encouraged as a result of people travelling from one country to another as modern travel facilitates rapid dissemination of HIV infection across national borders. Infected persons who have migrated from Nigeria in search of greener pastures sometimes visit the country, especially during festive holidays, and if they are promiscuous disseminate the disease.
Also, human trafficking for commercial sex purposes increases the spread of the disease in Nigeria. Trafficking in persons, which the International Labour Organization (ILO, 2001: 47) describes as “the underside of globalization”, is one of the greatest human rights challenges of our time. A large number of trafficked victims are either kidnapped or lured into following the perpetrators usually to countries abroad. The destination countries of Nigerian women, who are transported to Europe for sex work, have usually been Italy, Belgium, Holland, Spain, France, and Germany, with Italy being the most significant. The trafficked persons, especially women and girls, are placed in brothels, private homes, tourist establishment and street corners where they are forced to offer sexual activities for money. Many of these women often engage in their trade without the use of condoms and may even lower their prices for sexual services so as to enable them to pay back their debt bondage. These unsafe activities expose them to the risk of HIV and other infections. Thus, whenever these women are arrested, they get deported back to Nigeria, increasing the risk of infecting many unsuspecting promiscuous men.
Impact of Globalization on the Environment
Globalization can have both positive and negative effects on the environment. It can exacerbate environmental problems as well as provide new means for addressing them. However, the negative effects of globalization seem to outweigh its positive effects. Globalization has had a negative impact on the environment through deforestation. According to Wikipedia Encyclopaedia, globalization is often viewed as a root cause of deforestation. The overuse of natural resources due to increased demand and also the removal of ecosystems due to population growth have had a large negative impact on the environment. Extensive deforestation has occurred world-wide with the logging industry being fuelled by the need for disposable products. Thus, deforestation whether it is for an increase in demand or for expansion is causing a loss of biological diversity on the planet (Francesob, 2010). Nigeria is not exempted from the impact of deforestation. The country’s rain forest is depleting fast majorly as a result of international trade. Kalbessa (2007: 103) observed that,
Under the current international law, trans-national corporations are free to promote their interests in any part of the world. They have continued to establish industries in various countries by destroying the natural forest and dismantling the source of the peasant farmers’ survival. Various plant and animal species are doomed to extinction owing to the loss of forest.
Apart from contributing to the depletion of the ozone layer, deforestation also affects water cycle. Trees extract groundwater through their roots and release it into the atmosphere. When part of a forest is removed, the trees no longer evaporate away this water, resulting in a much drier climate. Deforestation reduces the content of water in the soil and groundwater as well as atmospheric moisture. Deforestation reduces soil cohesion, so that erosion, flooding and landslides occur.
Globalization has brought about various forms of environmental pollution. Environmental pollution has been described as the contamination of the environment by biological, chemical, and or physical agents that are harmful to human, animal or plant, life and the general environment, and may arise through the natural events, industrial and human activities or the interaction of all (Otukong, 2002: 3). Pollution of the environment is attributed to the increase in industries, burning of fossil fuels to run the industries, machines and for transport of both raw and finished products to different places.
The activities of oil industries and multinational corporations in oil producing areas of the country, mostly in the Niger Delta area is a major source of environmental concern in the country. Oil industry activities – exploration, production, refining, and transportation – have caused widespread social and ecological disturbances. These include explosions from seismic surveys, pollution from pipeline leaks, blowouts, flaring, drilling floods, and refinery effluents, as well as land alienation and widespread disruption of natural terrain from construction of oil-related industrial infrastructure and installations. Oil producing areas in Rivers, Delta and Cross Rivers are most affected. The impact of the exploratory and extractive activities of global forces – Shell whose operation in Nigeria alone accounts for 14 % of its total global operations, Mobil Agip, Cheveron, Texaco, Total, etc. – have basically affected the social organization of the Ogoni people and the Niger Delta in general (Kelbessa, 2007).
One major activity of these multinational companies that has a tremendous environmental impact is gas flaring. According to the World Bank, by 2002 flaring in the country had contributed more greenhouse gases to the Earth’s atmosphere than all other sources in sub-Saharan Africa combined – and yet this gas is not being used as a fuel (Friends of the Earth, 2004: 1-2). According to The News Magazine of 18 April 2011, the NNPC, in its May 2010 report, stated that of the 192 billion standard cubic feet (BSCF) of gas produced during the period, over 145 BSCF was flared. This is done at the detriment of the environment. All what flaring of gas does is to contribute to climate change which is already a major global threat, manifesting in food insecurity, diseases, skin cancer, and also increasing rise in the cost of extreme weather damage. People living in the area where gas is being flared are the worst hit. The flares contain toxins, such as benzene, which pollute the air, resulting in respiratory problems such as asthma and bronchitis.
Gas flaring is environmentally unethical and has contributed significantly to the degradation of the environment in the region. According to Eregha and Irughe (2009),
this practice may have altered the vegetation of the area, replacing natural vegetation with stubborn grasses and the presence of these grasses indicates that the soil is no longer fertile for cultivation of crops. A major example could be seen in Opuama and Sekewu communities in the Warri North Local Government Area of Delta State in the region. It is evident that gas flaring has affected the ozone layer of the region leading to climate change that is unhealthy to crops cultivation.
In other words, due to the intense heat that accompanies gas flaring, vegetation in the vicinity are bound to be affected as plants will not grow in such an area.
Another major challenge of globalization in Nigeria is that of electronic waste (e-waste). “Electronic waste” or “e-waste” may be defined as all secondary computers, entertainment device electronics, mobile phones, and other items such as television sets and refrigerators, whether sold, donated, or discarded by their original owners. This definition includes used electronics which are destined for reuse, resale, salvage, recycling, or disposal (Omatek Ventures: 2011).
According to Achim Steiner (2007), UN Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of the UN Environment Programme, “globalization is triggering a massive rise in electronic wastes, some of which are being dumped in Asia and Africa: one investigation indicates that at least 100,000 computers arrive at the port of Lagos alone each month. Up to three quarters of the imports — which also includes old televisions and mobile phones — will end up in an African rubbish tip or open air incinerator”. In other words, with computer manufacturers competing intensely in terms of innovation, the raw processing power of computers is rapidly increasing, resulting in a large number of machines becoming obsolete in increasingly short periods of time and also due to ongoing technological advancement, many electronic products become obsolete within a very short period of time, creating a large surplus of unwanted electronic products.
As a result of lower environmental standards and working conditions in most developing countries, e-waste is being sent to these countries without any concern on the negative environmental impact as well as the negative impact on the health of the citizens of these countries. When handled improperly, e-waste presents significant human health and environmental risks due to the toxicity of materials used in many electronic products (See Table 1). Many of these electronic items which are obsolete are imported into the country by business men who are out to make their profit. They sell the items as ‘Tokunbo’ or ‘second hand’ items. Many Nigerians buy these items because they are believed to be cheaper than new ones and are purportedly better than new items that are manufactured within Nigeria. Also, some foreign organizations and agencies source these electronic gadgets from the western countries through donations and send them down to Nigerian schools, hospitals and other places. Some of these gadgets are sometimes unusable and beyond repairs. Domwatch, an anti-dumping group in a report said a UK-based organization once offered to donate 10,000 computers to a Nigerian NGO but only 2,000 of the computers were found to be okay and in reusable condition (PARC: 2009).
Consequently, the electronic gadgets that are unusable and unserviceable have to be dumped in dumpsites, constituting health hazard for Nigerians. These dumpsites are daily visited by scavengers, especially women and the youth who are in search of metals that can be sold for various uses. The remnants are usually burnt, resulting in toxic emissions and air pollution thereby compounding health problems and also adding to the depletion of the ozone layer. An estimated 53, 600 metric tonnes of e-waste are dumped annually at Lagos State landfills which include 860,000 computers, 530,000 printers, 900,000 monitors and 480,000 television sets (LASEPA, 2011).
E-waste is considered a crucial environmental issue due to its rapidly growing volume and hazardous content which may leak into the environment if it is not properly disposed of, and cause adverse effect on human health and the environment. Dumping of e-waste in any environment including Nigeria has negative health consequences such as leaching toxins into the soil, air and groundwater which later enter into crops, animals and human body systems causing contamination and pollution. Medical experts have warned that exposure to these substances can cause damage to blood and nervous systems, DNA, immune systems, kidneys and can lead to respiratory and skin disorders and lung cancer and can interfere with regulatory hormones and brain development (Osuagwu and Ikerionwu, 2010).
Yet, despite international attempts to prevent the continuous dumping of e-waste in developing countries, the dumping continues unabated. The major treaty entered into by many countries is the Basel Convention, which is an international treaty designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries. It represents the only global and comprehensive international legal instrument that addresses the integrated dimension of hazardous waste and it provides for an effective and stringent system for controlling their trans-boundary movements and ensuring their proper disposal; it clearly defines the obligations of Parties to comply with its provisions. Incidentally, a dumping incidence that occurred in Nigeria was one of the factors which triggered and expedited the creation of the Basel Convention which came into force on 5 May 1992. In 1988, 5 ships transported 8,000 barrels of hazardous waste from Italy to the small town of Koko, Delta State in Nigeria in exchange for $100 monthly rent which was paid to a Nigerian farmer for the use of his farmland to dump these waste.
In a bid to find a lasting solution to the menace of e-waste in Nigeria, for the first time, an international e-waste summit was held in Lagos between 24-25 February 2011, with the theme ‘Regulation and Management of E-Waste in Nigeria’. The Summit was hosted by the Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA) in collaboration with the Environmental Law Research Institute (ELRI) and Basel Convention Coordinating Centre for the African Region (BCCC-NIGERIA). At the summit, Lagos State Commissioner for Environment, Dr. Muiz Adeyemi Banire opined that second-hand electronics should not be allowed into the country, stating that charting a regulatory roadmap for the rising e-waste problem is the best manner of solving the problem of electrical/electronics waste and its hazards (LASEPA, 2011). In essence, the menace of e-waste is a fall out of globalization. The craze for phones, Ipods, laptops, blackberry and many other related items has turned Nigeria into a dumping ground. A large number of these electronics find their way to the Computer Village and Alaba market in Lagos, and other places where Nigerians avail themselves of them. However, lack of data on the volume of e-waste imported into the country or generated domestically, constitute a primary challenge facing regulators. This hinders proper planning and strategic establishment of infrastructure required for the management of e-waste. Since Nigerians are moving with the tides of globalization and will continue to use these electronic products, the only option left for the country is for the government to put in place effective policy, law and regulation for the management of e-waste in Nigeria.
Another major environmental hazard associated with globalization is the influx of generating sets, commonly called generators in Nigeria. Due to incessant cut in power supply in Nigeria, most homes and industries resort to the use of generators. Nigeria is the largest importer of generators in the world, with over N1.3 trillions been spent in the last four years purchasing generators in an effort to respond to the declining power supply in the country. The generator is a source of noise and air pollution in the country. Many industries as well as many homes use generators for twenty four hours as an alternative source of power supply, despite the fact that they are only meant to be backups for electricity. Also, apart from the nuisance it constitutes as a result of noise in the neighbourhood, many Nigerians have lost their lives from the use of generators either through an electrical shock or the inhalation of generator fumes, which often contain carbon monoxide.
Also, the way and manner diesel and petrol are stored in many homes for use in their generators portends high risk for the environment. This is due to their inflammable nature, making generators unsafe for use sometimes within homes. Many houses do not have designated places for storing these items, and the fuel and generators are often kept carelessly around or even within the building, thereby increasing the risk of fire outbreaks. Undocumented incidences of fire outbreaks caused by the use of generators happen almost every week around the country.
While it is correct to say that globalization has both positive and negative impacts on the world, Nigeria inclusive, its negative impacts are very weighty. There is a need to urgently and effectively address these challenges arising from globalization. Without doubt, globalization is an irreversible process in accord with natural laws. Inasmuch as the pain caused by some aspects of globalization is undeniable, the real issue is whether the negative effects of its sweeping processes can be ameliorated – and the positive effects enhanced. This is because it is apparent that globalization has come to stay. There is a need for Nigerians to preserve their cultures in any way possible. It is a shame that many Nigerian children of this generation cannot speak their mother tongue or understand their cultures. Nigerians need to exploit the process of globalization to promote their cultures. For example, the internet can be employed to propagate the country’s culture. There could be website where the youth could browse to learn proverbs and the rudiments of their cultures.
There is, therefore, a need for a reassessment of how Nigeria has fared in the era of globalization. Science in a globalizing world has benefits that Nigeria can and should take advantage of. The era of computers, revolutionalized telecommunication and the Internet is what the country cannot shy away from, but the positives of the times should be properly harnessed for the country to appropriately benefit from globalization. Instead of a consolidation of the cultures and values of the country, various dimensions of globalization continue to erode what makes this part of the world unique. Imitations and adoption of western values are being done at the detriment of the nation’s essence of existence.
Nigeria needs to phantom how it will not be swallowed by globalization. Instead of total reliance on what the west is handing down, the country needs to encourage local production and industry. There is a need for Nigeria to demonstrate her beliefs in indigenous technical knowledge and skills, instead of being subjected to the mercy of globalization without being globalized in the real sense of it. The country must be proud of her heritage and way of life, instead of being submerged in the western way of life. Also, over-dependence on oil, which is also a vehicle driving globalization, may spell doom for the country. There is a need for a return to agriculture as the mainstay of the country’s economy. By doing so, it will reduce the dependence of the country on the western world. The existing government policy and regulation in the management and control of e-waste in Nigeria is inadequate and insufficient for proper management. There is a need for the government to pass laws to restrict and limit the flow of hazardous substances and discarded electronics into Nigeria. Also, only electronics manufactured by companies who comply with non-toxic components requirement and those with details informing consumers about the chemicals used should be allowed into Nigeria. Lack of data on the volume of e-waste imported into the country or generated domestically, constitute a primary challenge facing regulators. This hinders proper planning and strategic establishment of infrastructure required for the management of e-waste. Thus, there is a need to ensure proper record management in relations to what is allowed into the country. If Nigeria is able to utilize globalization in such a way that will increase the positive impact and minimize the negative impact, the world will be a better place to live in.
Acosta O. and Gonzalez J.I. (2010). “A thermodynamic approach for emergence of globalization”, in Deng K. G. (ed.) Globalization – Today, Tomorrow. Croatia: Sciyo.
Adjibolosoo, S. (2007). “Creating an Integrated Vehicle for Global Participation and Gain sharing”. Paper prepared for the Free Market Forum,” The Role of Markets and Governments in Pursuing the Common Good,” Panel Topic: Globalization and the Common Good, at Hillsdale College, September 29.
Eregha, P. B. and Irughe I. R. (2009). “Oil Induced Environmental Degradation in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta: The Multiplier Effects.” Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 11 (4)
Giddens, A. (1990). The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.
ILO. (2001). Stopping forced labour: Global report under the follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, International Labour Conference, 89th Session 2001, Report 1B.
Iyayi, F. (2004). “Globalization, The Nigerian Economy and Peace”, in Akani, C. Globalization and the Peoples of Africa. Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishing Ltd.
Jaja, J. M. (2010). “Globalization or Americanization: Implications for Sub-Saharan Africa”, in Deng K. G. (ed.) Globalization – Today, Tomorrow. Croatia: Sciyo.
Kalbessa W. (2007) “Dialogue Among Civilisations and the Process of Globalisation”, in Moazami, Bahman and Rassouli, Navid (eds.). Collection of Papers of the International Conference on Dialogue Among Civilizations from the Viewpoint of Young People. Tehran: Alhuda International Publishers and Distributors.
LASEPA. (2011). EKO Declaration on E-Waste 2011. Available at:
Mulinge, M. and Munyae, M. (2001). “Globalization and Sustainable Development in Africa: Putting Old Wine in a New Wineskin?” in Assefa, Taye et al (eds.) Globalisation, Democracy, and Development in Africa: Challenges and Prospects. Addis Ababa: OSSREA.
Maduemezia, A. (2002). “What is the Role of Science in a Globalizing World? What are the Implications for Africa?” Speech given at the Workshop on “Science and Technology and Africa’s Global Inclusion” sponsored jointly by the ATPS and the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology of Nigeria in November 2002.
Mohanty, P.K. (2005). Globalisation, Information Technology and Governance. Available at:
Mrak, M. (2000). Globalization: Trend, Challenges and Opportunities for Countries in Transition. Vienna: UNIDO.
Omatek Ventures (2011). “Understanding E-Waste”. Available at: waste20Day201/understanding2e-waste20final20of20all.pdf
Omekwu, Charles O. (2006). African culture and libraries: the information technology challenge. The Electronic Library, 24(2), 243 – 264.
Osuagwu, O.E. and Ikerionwu, C. (2010). “E-Cycling E-Waste: The Way Forward for Nigeria IT and Electro-Mechanical Industry”. International Journal of Academic Research, 2 (1), January.
Otukong, I. T. O. (2002). Environmental Pollution and Emerging Health Hazard: the Nigerian Scenario, The Journal of General Practice, 7 (1).
Pan-African Reconciliation Centre. (2009). “Toxic e-waste in Nigeria”. Available at:
Poppi, C. (1997) “Wider Horizons with Larger Details: Subjectivity, Ethnicity, and Globalization”, in Alan Scott (ed.), The Limits of Globalization: Cases and Arguments. London: Routledge.
Shenkar, O. and Luo, Y. (2004). International Business. New York: John Willey & Sons.
Schirato, T. and Webb, J. (2003). Understanding Globalization. London: Sage Publications.
Scholte, J., (1997). “The Globalization of World Politics”, in Steve Smith and John Baylis (eds). The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford: Universtiy Press.
Steiner, A. (2007). “Connected Dreams: Globalization and the Environment”, in Our Planet, Magazine of the United Nations Environment Programme, February.
Stone, M. (2002). “Globalization and HIV/AIDS Policies in Africa”. A Concept Paper for Aid Transparency: Regional Think Tank on HIV/AIDS. The News Magazine, 18 April, 2011, p.23-24.
United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS; Global Crisis Global Action, Fact Sheets; Press release, New York, June 25-27, 2001.