THE IMPACT OF CAPITAL MARKET ON DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA ECONOMY
This study tends to improve the impact of capital market on development of Nigerian economy. The study will proceed from the general over view of capital market, statement of problem in this research work are failure of federal government to create awareness to the people. The primary objective of the research work was to evaluate the impact of capital market on Nigeria economy. Research hypothesis that was used in actual frequencies decision rule and interpretation of result, the source of data are through primary and secondary source of data collection, and method of data analysis based on the questionnaire administered to the staff of Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE) Abuja. Interview conducted with the lenders and investors and observations made at the Nigeria Stock Exchange house. Conclusion the recapitalization policies by the central Bank of Nigeria on commercial Banks strengthens the financial institutions and restores confidence in the financial system.
This research work is titled the impact of capital market on development of Nigeria economy. The Nigeria capital market is a highly specialized and organized financial market and indeed essential agent of economic growth and development because of its ability to facilitate and mobilize saving and investment.
To a greater extent the positive relationship between capital accumulation and real economic growth has long been affirmed in economic theories (Anyanwu 1996).
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Nigeria capital market is a complex institution where medium and long term funds are put together and made available and also instruments like stocks shares, debentures and bonds are transformed.
The financial institution comprises of the Nigeria market includes commercial banks, merchant banks, development bank, insurance companies unit trust, pension fund and the stock exchange.
The capital market is broadly categorized into two classes:
- The Primary market
- The secondary market
THE PRIMARY MARKET
This is a market in which companies or government can raise funds by issuing shares or loan stocks. Quoted companies can also involve fresh funds.
The Nigerian stock exchange also involve in the primary market.
THE SECONDARY MARKET
This is a market for buying and selling existing securities. Secondary markets are vehicles for providing liquidity to investors. Where securities are openly, the stock exchange provides free entry and free exists for investors through trading in secondary market.
The Nigeria stock exchange was established in September 15, 1960 as the Lagos Stock Exchange but actually started operations in June, 1961 prior to this, all formal savings and deposits went through the banking system while major capital balance were invested for the country. On June 5, 1961, the exchange opened its doors for business. It is owned by 135 (One hundred and thirty five) shareholders made up of financial institution stock brokers and individual Nigerians.
The Nigerian Stock Exchange has a president and council members, Chairman and Board of Directors who are elected at the annual general meeting by members of the exchange. The tenure of office of the president is limited to a one-three year term. The cousncil is responsible for policy making, but day-to-day running of the affairs of the exchange is vested in the office of the Director General and its management team (NSE 1999).
The NSE has the following trading floor / branches in major cities of the Federation, Kaduna (1978), Port Harcourt (1980), Kano (1989), Onitsha (Feb, 1990) Ibadan (Aug. 1990) Abuja (October, 1999 and Yola (April 2002).
As at the inception in 1961, the NSE started trading in Lagos with 19 securities valued at N80 million listed on it. This has grown to 283 listed companies with a total market capitalization of about N15 trillion. All listings are included in the only index, the NSE all share index. The NSE is responsible for listing, delisting and general discipline in the stock market as well as the orderly conduct.
The NSE is organized in such a way that only the dealing member companies of the exchange that are allowed to trade on its trading floor on behalf of their numerous clients and there is a regime of rules and regulations to guide the conduct of their operations. It enables the holders of securities to convert them into cash quickly and without inconveniences and also at a compulsory moderate cost. The state of health of the companies is determined by evaluation of the studies.
Oba E. (1999) Basic understanding of capital market operations, Lagos, Deacon Oba Ekiran Publishers.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The following are the statement of the problem in this research work.
- The Nigeria capital market which is supposed to being avenue for sourcing long term funds to finance long-term project is not as developed as her foreign counterpart.
- It has therefore not been able to judiciously perform its primary obligation of meeting long-term capital needs of the deficit sectors, through efficient accumulation of capital or mobilization of funds from the surplus unit of the economy, and effectively channel mobilized funds for more economic use.
A critical study of both the real and service sector will elucidate this fact. This study is undertaken to examine the contribution of the capital market in the Nigeria economic growth and development
The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the impact of capital market on development of Nigeria economy.
Other specific objective are as follows:
- To assess the performance of the capital market in relation to the economic growth in Nigeria.
- To analyse the rate at which new stocks are issue on the capital market.
- To appraise how the operations of the market could be improve to boost economic growth and development of Nigeria.
- To evaluate the operations of the Nigeria capital market.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research shall be guided by the following research questions.
- How does the capital market impact on the economic growth and development process in Nigeria?
- What is the trend of trading activities on the capital market?
- What is the rate at which new stock are issued on the Nigeria capital market?
- How could the capital market through its crucial role stimulate economic growth in Nigeria?
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis that would be tested in the course of this research is state below as:
H0: That the capital market operations have not contributed to Nigeria economic growth.
H1: That the capital market operations have contributed to Nigeria Economic growth.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will explore the impact or effectiveness of capital market instruments on Nigeria economic growth. Though the scope of study will be limited to the capital market it is hoped that the exploration of this market will provide a broad view of the operations of the capital market. It will contribute to existing literature on the subject matter by investigating empirically the role, which the capital market plays in the economic growth and development of the country. The main importance of this study is that it will provide policy recommendations to policy makers on ways to improve operations and activities of the capital market.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work will only look at a particular part of the economy (the financial sector) this work will not cover all the facets that make up the financial sector, but shall focus only on the capital market and its activities as it impacts on the Nigeria economic growth. The empirical investigation of the impact of the capital market on the economic growth in Nigeria shall be restricted to the period between 1986 and 2010 due to the non-availability of some important data.
Capital: A capital can be defined as assets or resources available to the individual or organization whether permanently (i.e. down capital) or temporary (i.e. debt capital). Therefore it can be physical or financial.
Capital Market: Capital markets is the market for raising and investing long-term funds. Financial instruments traded on this market are equities and loan stock having maturity period of three years or longer.
Dividend: A portion of the net earning that has been officially declared by the board of directors of a company for distribution to shareholders.
Financial Market: This simply means the various facilities provided by the financial systems for the creation of custodianship and distributions of financial assets and liabilities, investments trust and mortgage institutions.
Insurance Companies: These are risk underwriters for life and non-life business. Their non-life comprises of short-term liabilities by way of claims during the life of the policy usually a year.
Issuing Houses: These are institutions whose primary responsibility is to take companies to the capital market to raise funds through primary issues.
Prospectus: A prospectus is a document through which a public limited liability company offer for subscription or for sales of its shares to the public detailing information about the offer.
Portfolio Investors: They are institutions that are established to manage huge investment funds for one group of corporate investors.
Shareholder: The possessor of shares or stock in an organization corporation or company by investing in the securities available in the capital market.
Stock Exchange: This is a primary market in which companies and other institutions raise funds by issuing shares or loan stock. It is also a secondary market for buying and selling existing securities (Shares and loan stocks).
Stock Brokers: A stock brokers is a firm or person who buys and sells securities on behalf of investors for a commission called brokerage.