THE IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT ON NIGERIA ECONOMIC GROWTH (1980 – 2010)
The study examined the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Nigeria over the period 1980 to 2010. The study employed multiple regressions in analysis, using the ordinary least square (OLS) regression technique. The result at this revealed that FDI impacted positively on the growth of the Nigerian economy over the period under study. Based on this, the study recommended the provision of adequate infrastructure and policy framework that will be conducive for doing business in Nigeria, so as to attract the inflow of FDI necessary to stimulate growth.
1.3 BACKGROUND OF STUDY:
Since the attachment of independent in 1960 various policies of the Nigerian government have been geared essentially towards promoting the growth and development of the Nigerian economy by influencing the trends of gross fixed domestic investment or indirectly through policies aimed at stimulating the flow of foreign finance in any growing economy. This is so given that in the literature there are divergent views on the nature of effects of foreign direct investment has been argued to be the most growth stimulation source of foreign finance in any growing economy. This is so given that in the literature there are divergent views on the nature of effects of foreign direct investment on host economies. Those that are of the view that foreign direct investment produce positive effects on host economies argue that some of the benefits are in the form of externalities and the adoption of foreign technology, employers training and the introduction of new process by the foreign firms according to Ayadi, (2002) foreign direct investment especially when it flows to a high risk area of new firms where domestic resource is limited.
The first national development plan was launched for industrial trade off and developments however as foreign industrial investors were. Rather apprehensive of the nascent independent administration efforts had to be made not only to allay their fears of nationalization but also attract additional foreign investment through joint venture with individuals or the state. However Nigeria economy has been one of the important destination points of foreign direct investment in sub-Saharan Africa. The amount of foreign direct investment inflow into Nigeria according to ayadi (2002) has reached US $ 2.23 billion in 2003 and it rose to US $ 5.31 billion in 2004 (9.13% increase) the figure rose again to US $9.92 billion (87%increasing) in 2005. The figure however declined slightly to US $ 9.44 billion in 2006.
Nigeria is argued to be buoyantly blessed with enormous mineral and human resource but believed to be highly risky market for investment. Also decade of bad governance have almost crippled. The national economy with corruption and misappropriation is of fund becoming the norm rather than expectation. What is the way out of this economic state? Many experts accepted that foreign direct investment. Is a verifiable booster to kick start the economy. According to Odozi (1995) foreign investment appears to be the most. Crucial component of capital inflows and Nigeria should seek to attract in light of her current economic circumstance. Some scholars are of the view that Nigeria. Is in need of foreign direct investment as a verifiable boaster of the Nigerian economy while others are of the view that foreign direct investment is a form of neo- colonialism to what extent. Has foreign direct investment helped. The economic growth in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:
One of the major economic problem in less developed countries (LDC) is low capital formation to finance the necessary investment for economic growth.
Capital was one regarded by most economists as the principal obstacle to economic development and this is lot attentions were paid to capital formation. The role of capital in economic growth is still regarded as very crucial both the theory of ‘big push’ and the concept of ‘vicious cycle’ all a test to the crucial role of capital in the growth process. The theory of ‘bigpush’ simply state that the stagnant and undeveloped economies need huge and sudden injection of large capital from foreign direct investment.
However in the literature FDI is found to be related to export growth while human capacity building is found to be related to FDI flow.
Most studies on FDI and growth are cross country studies. However FDI and growth debates are country specific. Among Nigeria studies like those by otepola(2002) oyejide(2005), Akinlo(2004) examined the importance of FDI on growth for several period and the channel through which it may be benefiting the economy.
In the literature there exist a direct positive link between export growth and the growth of an economy. This growth in export can further be traced down to the level of investment which in most cases can be domestic or foreign investment.
This is so given that foreign capital remains the sure best option of filling the saving investment gap where it exists. Given this fact assessment will be based on the existing link among investment, export, exchange rate and economic growth.
These problems therefore raise the following research question.
1. What is the impact of foreign direct investment to the growth of Nigeria economy?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are as follow:
1. To find out whether or not FDI has a significant impact on the growth of the Nigeria economy.
2. To determine the nature and magnitude of the impact of FDI on economic growth in Nigeria.
1.4 STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS
H01: FDI has no significant impact on the growth of the Nigeria economy
H02: The nature and magnitude of FDI on economics growth in Nigeria cannot be determined.
1.5 SCOPE/ THE LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The focus of the study is to verify if there has been any contribution made toward the economic growth and development of the Nigeria economics via gross domestic product (GDP) through foreign direct investment for the period.(1990-2010).
This study will however be limited to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment on the growth of the Nigeria economy.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Finding from the study will be of immense benefits in a number of ways and to different groups of persons.
1. For policy making, the expected result outcome shall serve as a useful guide for future policies as it relates to stimulating growth within the economy.
2. For further studies, it will serve as a reservoir of knowledge for such academic exercises.