THE IMPACT OF ICT ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF WORKERS IN SELECTED TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN ANAMBRA STATE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Dedication page iv
Table of contents vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problems 5
1.3 Objective of the Study 5
1.4 Research Questions 6
1.5 Research Hypothesis 7
1.6 Significance of the Study 8
1.7 Scope of the Study 9
2.0 Review of Related Literature 12
2.1 Computer Application and Organization Efficiency 13
2.2 Information Technology and Original Values 15
2.3 Internet Connection and Employees Satisfaction 18
2.4 Modern Office Technology and Workers Job Performance 21
3.0 Research Methodology 26
3.1 Design of the Study 26
3.2 Area of the Study 27
3.3 Population of the Study 27
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 29
3.5 Validation of the Instrument 30
3.6 Distribution and Retrieval of Instrument 31
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data 32
4.1 Presentation of Data 32
4.2 Discussion of Findings 42
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 43
5.1 Discussion 43
5.2 Conclusion 44
5.3 Recommendation 45
5.6 Limitation of the Study 47
Appendix A 49
Appendix B 50
The impact of ICT is to convey, manipulate and store information; the population is 220, and sample size 142. The findings are based on greatly influenced social, political and economic processes in Anambra State and worldwide. Regardless of the level of practice, ICTs will continue influencing the careers of social workers and the clients they serve. ICTs have received some attention in the social work literature and curriculum, but we argue that this level of attention is not adequate given their ubiquity, growth and influence, specifically as it relates to upholding social work ethics. Significant attention is needed to help ensure social workers are responsible to the technological changes in the organizations.
Background to the Study
Before now, the people of old (our fore fathers) used their fingers, toes to count or keep record. Pebbles or stones were used after counting, the stones were kept as a reminder of the number of yams remaining in the barn. Sticks were also used to shape and keep record by the people of old like noting the number of sheep and goats in the compound. Some important documents were kept in the local boxes holes were dugged in the ground where money is being saved. The early method of counting, distributing information, communicating and keeping records could not solve some disturbing problems of counting and record keeping. So man still went into discoveries as to have better and fast means of counting, storing messages and distributing information and some other of his undertaking as a result, a lot of discovery and invention of modern machines like computer, telephone, calculator, word processor, electric typewriter, photocopy machines etc.
The above mentioned machines/equipment cannot function on its own without somebody operating it or them.
Dynamic is the best way to describe today’s office environment that undergoes rapid changes can be seen in office structures and in office positioning from entry level to executive manager’s level. Attentions is now given to what the office does and the way in which office activities previously taken for granted can be accomplished.
Aronu (2002) defines information communication technology as the combination of two technologies, computing and the main purpose of which is to transmit representation of information signals between remote locations.
The introduction of information and communication technology into the organizations the changes cut across all aspects of works and the office professional as a whole.
Information communication technology has replaced the traditional equipment used by office management which are now considered obsolete and office activities and functions are today being undertaken by electronic and computer based technology leading to office automation and a paperless office.
Collins (2005) defined Information Communication Technology (ICT) as an application of practical science to industry, commerce, technical method, skills and knowledge. This clearly brings about the advantages of inter-connectivity system used in acquiring, storing manipulating, controlling displaying, transmitting and receiving of information through the internet facilities by means of telephone connected to a computer Montgomeries (2004) defined Information Communication Technology as the handling of pictorial, vocal and numerical information based in a combination of computing and telecommunication. Today’s modern business world has been reshaped and connected to a global system of communication that ensures speedy information and business transaction in an organization.
Job performance assesses whether a person performs a job well. Job performance, studies academically as part of industrial and organizational psychology (The branch of psychology that deals with sources management), also forms a part of human resources management. Performance is an important criterion for organizational outcomes and success.
John Campbell (2005) described job performance as an individual level variable, or something a single person does. This differentiates it from more encompassing constructs such as organizational performance or national performance, which are higher level.
Statement of the Problem
The emerging growth of information communication technology and drastic change in office technology operations is posting serious changes to office managers.
Golfberg (2005) opined that changes will continue to occur in office technology as well as in the structure of the office to accommodate people and machines to information needs, concern associated with changes should be anticipated job due to information communication and the fear of complex equipments such as video conferencing, facsimile transfer and so on, being introduce into the system has created fear and instability in the office manager.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study is to determine the impacts of information communication technology on the job performance of workers in tertiary institution in Anambra State.
Specific objectives are as follows;
- To determine the extent to which computer application influences organizational effectiveness.
- To ascertain the extent to which IT influences organizational value.
- To determine the extent to which internet connection influences organization efficiency?
- To evaluate the extent to which application of modern technology influences workers productivity.
The researcher asked the following questions to act as a guide in the study;
- To what extent does computer application influences organizational effectiveness.
- To what extent does IT influence organizational value.
- To what extent does internet connection influences organizational efficiency.
- To what degree doe applications of modern technology influence works productivity?
Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to organizations, office practitioners and students. It can also be used for further research.
- Organization: The study will help treat and improve some existing theories on information as they apply to organizations as well as the office professionals in the areas of human resources management.
- Further Research: It is also hoped that the findings of this study will contribute to the existing knowledge and information in the area of research.
- Office practitioners: The significance of this research work is immeasurable both to the practitioner, office professionals, chief executives, personnel managers, the management of the organizations and the public at large. It is expected that the following findings and recommendations of the study will guide the area of study to consider introducing information communication for their office professional efficiency and other human resources departments for effective administration of personnel matters.
- Student: The study will be useful to student who may wish to write or make some research on a similar topic using this as a point of reference and to re-orient them towards their profession, future research or practical endeavours.
Scope of the Study
The study covers ICT as the main key to organizational growth. IT covers the job performers of office workers and it focus on improving work force of an organizations and situations in Anambra State.
The area’s covered are five institutions, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Nnamdi Azikwe University Awka, Anambra State University Uli, College of Education Umunze and College of Education Nsugbe.
The research will first identify the importance of ICT and educate its impact in an organization
Definitions of terms
ICT: Is Information communication Technology were can we source information through ICT and Communicate effectively.
Information: Is a data that has been processed and can be used per decision making.
Technology: The purposeful application of information in the design production and utilization of goods and services, and in the organization of human activities.
Impact: Means a noticeable effect or influence
Equipment: Tools or machinery used for specific purposes.
Offices: Can be a place where information are on paper coverage and information is a documented, preserved and used for current and future operations or business.
Worker: A worker is someone who has the experience or trained to work in an organization on either to operate the machines or the available equipments like computer operator, or word processor. She is an alter Ego of the Boss”.
2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Employees differ in their personalities as these differences influence the way they react to the external and internal pressures that exist in any organization. Most employees spend more than 50% of their working hours at the workplace and its environment greatly influences their performance and mental framework. It has been observed that this mental framework has a direct impact on their individual performance which ultimately affects the organization as a whole, Thus, it is important for an organization to identify the factors that have a crippling effect on the performance of an employee at the workplace and make suitable corrections.
In this chapter, relevant literature related to their study were reviewed, the review was presented under the following headings;
- The relationship between computer application and organizational effectiveness.
- To what extent does IT influence organization value
- The relationship between internet connection influence employees satisfaction.
- The relationship between modern office technology and workers job productivity
2.1 Computer Application and Organizational Efficiency
This explores the relationship between computer application and performance for nations, organizations and individual . It takes into account, supply, demand and usage and linkages between education and training system the labour market and employment. Karma (2010) opined that there is a strong focus on skills and acquisition on the nation economy and the way social actors interact to shape out comes at the level of nation, and organization. Work organization and performance through a comparative study of service sector occupation in selected business countries.
Okolo (2008) stated that other projects have interrogated the potential impact of computer application of the performance of managers. The nature of “Managerial Work” and the progression opportunites for those lower down the occupational hierarchy.
Collins (2012) in his remark, stated that the aim has been to explore the impact of institutions on skills, work organization and job quality in service occupations that have been under researched.
Karmar (2005) postulated that the same services sector job can be development in very different ways in relation to exploitation and training requirement and levels of autonomy and discretion depending on the country. In his remark, he said that strong social partnership based institutions, supportive regulatory structures and trade union activism in the workplace are crucial in developing, jobs with higher levels of computer, discretion and autonomy.
Aronu (2007) in his contributions, asserted that a significant number of service sector jobs cannot be substantially upgraded in their skill have to face up to an endemic problems of measurement and evaluation framework for skills utilization.
2.2 Information Technology and Original values
Measuring workplace productivity is difficult process to quantify what does it means to have a productive workplace? is productivity measured strictly by financial results or do other characteristics play role in the final definition? The characteristics and characterization of the 21st Century as the information age has brought with it an unquestionable number of challenges for businesses. The challenges range from ethical consideration to technological advances to methods of communication or communicating a message to a global community forcing companies to evaluate business strategies and focus. Each of these concepts is a component of what becomes overall organization productivity.
Allen (2013), “Stated that productivity is the relationship between the amount of input needed to produce a given amount of output and the out itself understanding what defines specific inputs and outputs will differ from organization to organization.
Kemppilla (2003) stated, that the IT work can influence productivity.
Productivity is the key measures of success. This study focused on the key concepts that senior level leaders believe, encompass successful workplace productivity in 21st century organizations primary, this study sought to understand the specific work to understand the specific work habits expected by senior level management to create positive workplace productivity.
Amadi (2005) opined in contrast, understanding what behaviours and IT create negative productivity was also important. The following summarizes the opinions and findings of research participants, which serves as the starting point for further discussion of these concepts.
According to Phillip (2011), interpersonal skills, personal development, teams, leadership, time management, focus, rules and solutions were either positive or negative workplace affecting productivity. The majority of executives cited attitude as the most positive workplace affecting productivity and un-accountability and carelessness as the most negative IT original values affecting productivity previous studies agreed there are positive and negative connotations associated with an employees workplace performance.
Waal (2012) stated and identified characteristics correlating with high performance in organization. Waal’s study grouped these qualities into five factors, which effectively developed a descriptive framework model of high performance organization (hpo). Waal defined a hpo as one that “achieve financial and non financial results that rare exceedingly better than those of its peer group over a period of time.
2.3 Internet Connection and Employees Satisfaction.
With the growth of the internet, a wide range of ICTs have transformed social relationship, education, and the dissemination of information. It is agreed that online relationship can have properties of intimacy, richness, and liberation that rival or exceed offline relationships, as online relationships tend to be based more on mutual interest rather than physical proximity Thomas Friedman (2005) opined, that access to ICT influences employees and collaborative technologies-ie, interation between people supported by ICTs have expanded the possibilities for forming new business and distributing valued goods and services for anyone.
Bowk (2009) expressed that, with the development of ICTs, even the most remote areas of the world have opportunities to gain access to the highest quality learning resources.
Although ICTs and the growth of the internet are not without problems, a reality remains that both will continues to shape the global community. Other disciplines have recognized the importance of ICT and consider it to be a key part of professional development. Elendu (2011) asserted that, ICTs are of field of social work. Specifically, they provide efficient and effective ways for organizing people and idea’s offers greater access to knowledge and education, and increases the efficiency and collaboration, of our work. Thus, competencies with ICTs and ICT literacy shoukd be required learning outcomes in social work education and continuing education this includes having the knowledge and skills to understand and use ICT to achieve a specific purpose (is. Competencies), in addition to knowing the major concepts and language associated with ICT (ie, literacy) within this framework, this paper indentifies specific aspects of the code of Ethics, showing how ICT play a critical role in achieving the desired values and principles.
Coyle (2009) Postulated, that employees access to computer technology is becoming more efficient, productive, and chapter advances in technology is becoming more efficient, productive, and chapter Advances in technology are producing more powerful computing devices to create a dynamic virtual network that allows people all over the world to communicate share information with each other.
2.4 Modern Office Technology and Workers Job Performance
The growth and application of ICT influences workers performance and create a dynamic virtual network that allows people all over the world to communicate and share information with each other.
Kenedy (2004) stated that, influence of workers n job performance will reshape out society and will continue to be a dynamic force in future generations. It is important that social workers. Understand the role that technology plays in shaping the lives of clients and the services that are delivered. These rapidly developing technologies, and the individual that utilize them, are producing virtual networks of greater size and value.
Granovether (2003), argues that, today’s internet sites produce vast social networks that provide opportunities for professionals and employers to advertise and communication to effectively use social networks, whether need to understand the capabilities of these networks, and how they can be effectively understood, managed and utilized within a digital environment.
Technology innovations are encouraging a trend towards the digitization of the world is information and knowledge, essentially creating stores of the accumulated human experience.
Coyle, (2009) asserted that, ICT has become integrated into the modern global society, serving a whole range of functions and purposes with such growth are extensive arguments that internet access is a human right because it is necessary to fully participate in today’s ICT reform as the use of ICTs continues to grow, it is important to realize the importance of convergence, and low convergence shapes the transmission of information and services delivery. This concept refers to the coming together of information technologies.
Schonfield (2008), stated that the internet and other telecommunication networks have an enormous impact on defining the future of human interaction, and to date, these changes have largely been positive across social contexts.
Bargh (2004), opined that, the field of social work needs to understand how these changes are influencing and will continue to influence all aspect of social work. As it related to social work, it is critically important that such a research agenda builds an understanding of both the positive and negative impacts of ICT and human interaction.
Goldberg (2005) stated that, information communication technology has replaced the traditional equipment used by office managers which are now considered obsolete and office professionals task are now modified. Office activities and functions are today being undertaken by electronic and computer based technology leading to office automation and a paperless office.
Goldbery, in his remark, stated that the emerging growth of information communication technology and drastic change in office operations is posting serious changes to office managers.
Summary review of Reviewed Literature
From the view of related literature, it appears that technology therefore increase opportunity and productivity in the office.
Rottery “(2003) rightly put it that” if an office must function effectively especially in this country, the organization must go technologically in its basic operation”.
Elendu (2006) from her observation, we can see that machined make for higher accuracy and speedy operations and reduces work tensions and also relieves monotony and fatigue on the part of workers.
The research found abundant literature review pertaining mainly to the course of her job. Office automation has made it possible for work to advance from acting as the boss mouth piece to operating computer, electric typewriters, photocopying machines. Literature intended to reveal to the general public the rewards of technology (ICT) to the interest of workers and influence performance greatly.