A Study Of The Impact Of Instructional Materials In Teaching And Learning Biology In Senior Secondary Schools (a Case Study Of Enugu North Local Government Area)
The study determined the impact of instructional materials in teaching and learning biology among the students in senior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area. These research questions were reviewed and answered. The literature related to this study was reviewed under following topics. There are; uses of instructional materials, importance of instructional material in teaching and learning, the availability of instructional materials, the extent of usage of these materials, the extent of students show interest in biology lessons using instructional materials and review of empirical study. The research design is survey. The population of the study was 2,700 senior students. The sample was 252 senior students. The instrument used was questionnaire. The instrument was validated by 2 expects in the school of Science Education. The reliability of the instrument was obtained using test re-test method. Data were collected using the instrument. Data was analyzed using mean and percentage. The result showed that selected schools are not enough to guide and direct learning experiences. The available once in the schools are not frequently used. The extent of usage of these instructional materials are very poor. Finally the extent of students interest in biology lesson using instructional materials was very high in some secondary schools.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
Background of the study
Statements of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Meaning of instructional Materials
Classification/Types of instructional Materials
Uses of instructional materials.
Importance of instructional materials in teaching and leaning.
The availability of instructional materials.
The extent of usage of these materials.
The extent students show interest in biology
lessons using instructional materials.
Review of empirical studies.
Summary of related literature.
Design of the study.
Area of the study
Population of the study
Sample and sampling technique
Instrument for data collection
Validation of the instrument
Reliability of the instrument.
Method of data collection
Method of data analysis.
Method of data analysis.
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS.
Summary of the principal findings
Conclusions of findings.
Suggestions for further study
Appendix I: Letter of Introduction.
Appendix II: Questionnaire.
Background of the study
The universal basic education (UBE) programme of Nigeria is designed among other things to facilitate the standard of literacy and improve societal development, the UBE is a nine year programame that cover six years of primary education and three years of junior secondary schools. The three years of junior secondary school is known as upper basic (Basic 7-9). This upper basic level is aimed at preparing the youths for gainful employment or progression into the senior secondary level and subsequent admission into higher education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). Undoubtedly, these functions are very essential to the survival, enhancement and development of the Nigeria society. However, the extent to which the upper basic education level achieves the set aims is largely dependent on the various subjects in the curriculum and how they are taught in schools. Biology is one of the vocational subject taught at the upper level of the Nigerian education system as a compulsory part of the curriculum. It is taught as an integral core subject which comprises nature of molecules, cells, photosynthesis, respiration, reproduction etc. Biology is an interdisciplinary field of study which helps families and individuals to understand and adapt to the effects of biological changes. Archurst and Anyakoha (2004) described it as one of the natural sciences which also includes chemistry, physics and health science. The social sciences i.e. sociology, political science, economics, philosophy, psychology and art in solving problems of families and individuals.
Statement of problem
Statistical evidence shows that failure rate in biology at senior certificate examinations is high. This could be attributed to a number of factors; one of such factors is lack or total absence of instructional materials. In teaching and learning, instructional materials play a key role towards concretizing learning. Instructional materials make learning meaningful and help to improve students’ academic achievement. However these advantages of instructional materials have not reflected in the education system because of the dearth of these instructional materials in our schools. Hence, the need for alternative instructional materials called improvisation. Biology is resource intensive and in an era of poor funding or scarcity of resources, it may be very difficult to find some of the original materials and equipment for the teaching of biology in schools adequately, improvisation becomes the next option. Studies have shown the importance of improvisation in teaching of biology. All these studies used conventional instructional materials but there have not been studies specifically on the effect of students improvised instructional materials on students achievement in biology. This study therefore is geared towards finding out if the use of students improvised instructional materials could bring a solution to the problem of poor achievement of students in biology.
1.3 Objective of the study
The main objective of the study is the impact of instructional materials in teaching and learning biology in senior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu state. However, for the successful completion of the study, the following sub objectives were put forward by the researcher:
(i) To examine the effect of students improvised instructional materials and conventional materials on students scores in biology.
(ii) To identify the influence of gender on scores in biology when taught using students improvised instructional materials.
(iii) To explore the influence of school location on students scores in biology when taught using students improvised instructional materials.
(iv) To investigate the interactive effects of material and gender on students scores in biology.
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated:
H0: There is no significant impact on the use of laboratory apparatus in teaching biology in secondary schools
H1: There is a significant impact on the use of instructional material in the teaching and learning of biology in secondary schools
H02: There is no significant difference between the used of laboratory apparatus and the use of class room in teaching biology
H2: There is a significant difference between the used of laboratory apparatus and the use of class room in the teaching and learning of biology
For the successful completion of the study; the following research questions were formulated
- What is the importance of laboratory apparatus in teaching biology?
- What are the impacts of using instructional materials on the student’s performance in biology?
Significance of the study
First and foremost, the findings of the study will be of much significance to students, researchers and teachers in secondary schools. This is so because the report of the study will serve as a good reference document to this group of learners where conducting a research on the impact of instructional materials on teaching.
Again the study has much significance on the government in Nigeria. This is so because, it will serve as a source of information to the government that the non-provision of instructional materials to teaching provides has is for the falling standard of learning in the country.
Furthermore, the study will be significant to parents, this is so because when conducting parents teachers meeting such an issue might be raised and this will serve as a good reference document in providing solution.
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
The scope of the study is the impact of instructional materials in teaching and learning biology in senior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu state. However, the study has some constrained and limitations which are:
(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
Definition of terms
A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or pupils) under the direction of teachers.
A school environment is a school that has appropriate facilities, well-managed classrooms available school based health supports and a clear, fair disciplinary policy. It also includes the physical and aesthetic surroundings and the safety, security, climate and culture of the school.
Academic achievement refers to a student’s success in meeting short or long term goals in education.
The action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another.
Instructional materials refer to the human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to ease, encourage, improved and promote teaching and learning activities.
Teaching is the art and science of helping others to grow in their knowledge and understanding.
It is the study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behaviour, origin and distribution.
A secondary school is one means of delivering education to adolescents in level 2 or junior secondary education which is considered the second and final phase of basic education.
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