THE IMPACT OF MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATION FOR EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
The focus of this study is “the impact of management communication for effective organizational performance” with particular reference to ANAMMCO, Enugu.
The core concern of the study was to find out the communication techniques and system that will help in determining the effectiveness of such techniques and system for effective organizational performance.
To achieve this aims, the researcher used questionnaires method to obtained data from all the six (6) department of the company.
The study reveals that ANAMMCO is a company that gives enough attention to communication because they believe that communication helps for effective organizational performance and this enables the company achieve it’s aims and objectives.
Finally, it is hoped that the work will provide an adequate guide to readers and users either to agree or disagree with the writer.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Purpose of study
1.4 Significance of study
1.5 Research questions
1.6 Definition of terms
2.1 Meaning of communication
2.2 Features of communication
2.3 Purpose of communication
2.4 The communication process
2.5 Types/methods of communication
2.6 Communication barriers
2.7 Principles of effective/good communication
2.8 Importance of effective communication
3.1 Research design
3.2 Area covered by study
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sample and sample size
3.5 Instrument for data collection
3.6 Instrument administration
3.7 Method of data analysis
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
4.1 Data analysis
DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATION & CONCLUSION
5.1 Discussion of findings
5.4 Limitations of the study
Communication is the act of transferring information from one person to another, creature and point to point. It could also be means of transmitting and conveying of ideas, attitudes, views and opinions from person to person, generation to generation, communication to a very large audience and vice versa.
Social organization cannot survive without communication. You can imagine what the situation will be like if you gather people together and cannot communicate to them, the situation will be quite uncontrollable. Irrespective of how poor or rich and organization is there exist some spectrum of communication in all without it, no organization. It is so vital that without it, no organization can succeed. Infact, communication is indispensable to human existence because one must need to communicate with people around him, to share ideas, experience and feelings.
An organization without channels of communication or where it is not working well, should need it or have the already existing ones re-in-forced. The employers would like the feelings of the employees, customers, and the general public communication to help streamline action and activities in the organization.
The employees, more especially would like to know the objective of the organization in which they are working for. They will like to know when changes mainly those that will affect them are about to be effected. They will also like to know what is expected of tem in the organization, to abide by the rules and regulations and to make known to the organization their feeling, decisive aspiration and efforts. They will also like to be recogn by other members of the organization especially management. An organization is deemed a good one when it’s objectives are derived from those of it’s member and this can only be achieve by establishing an effective downward, upward and lateral communication system. Hence he is well informed of the organizational plans and given at same time the chance to make his own contributions to the advantage of the management and its entirely.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Every organization has a definite objective which it strives to achieve and live up to. For instance, legal institutions at their various levels aims at turning out good, disciplined and well behaved citizens for the country social, economic and political development. Police and other law enforcement agencies have the objective of curbing and suspension of deviant behaviours and to bring public order to sanity in the society. Business organization are set up for the provision of goods and services to the people at minimum cost and maximum profit. Education institutions at their various levels aims at turning out literate citizens with light level manpower for the country social, economic and political development.
Voluntary and religions organization like the red-cross, boys-scouts, girls-guides, boys and girls brigades and various churches are set up moral instrument, character molding and offering human: train services to the needy.
According to Ubeku (1983:20) human resources are the most important tools of every organization; since without them, other resources cannot operate.
These personnel who are the vehicles through which organizational objectives are attained have to be properly managed for effective performance, management awards to Aenyer (1970:20) is concerned with the direction and control of an organization. It involves planning and direction of work of others.
These managerial functions cannot be successfully executed in the absent of communication. It is particularly important in the function of directing and leading.
It is only when people can discus and interact with one another that they can open up and trust each other with a share of their true selves. Hence, communication is the life wire of the society.
Communication function is the means by which organized activity is unified, social inputs are fed into organization, behaviour is modified, change are effect information is made productive and goals are achieved. A personnel officer or a superior officer engages in communication with an individual with the purpose of changing his behaviour. He may have disciplinary or corrective objective in counseling situations which has high emotional content. The superior should listen empathically to the employees or subordinates. Empathy means putting oneself in somebody else shoes or place and emotions. Empathetic listening is therefore a part of two way communication. The subordinate must have the opportunity to express himself and it is only when he has made himself known that the superior will know where to assist him.
Communication is essential for both internal and external functioning of enterprises. Its needs internally includes integrating the managerial function to develop plans for their achievement; to organize human and material resources for maximum productivity and above all to create the conducive atmosphere for effective and efficient organizational performance.
External communication is also vital for every organization in other to achieve success. It is through information exchange that managers do know the needs of their numerous customers both, consumers and suppliers, legal and community requirements, conditions in the labour market, new product line expectations, plans and strengthen plans for business trend innovations. No organization, be it military, business religions or even government can succeed without external interaction and influence which is only possible through communication.
Brow (1983:116) stressed that communication is the process of transmitting ideas and thoughts from one person to another for the purpose of creating understanding in the thinking of the person receiving the information.
This emphasis on understanding focuses attention on the importance of communication for effective organizational performance.
Anker (1978:102) stated that information is the manager’s main tool since, he does not “handle” people but, motivate, guide and direct them to perform in conformity with the desired goals. The manager’s only tool to do this language charts gestures and other movements.
Whatever method that is applied, the important thing is understanding by the receiver for the necessary action. No matter the managers job, his effectiveness depends on his ability to speak and to write clear enough to get his thinking across to other people as well as understanding what other people are after.
Manager’s should aim at organizing and co-ordinating human and material resources of his organization into an effective and efficient working unit and to achieve this, he must spend a good percentage of his time on communication. It is only when the human and material elements of an organization are harnessed into a united whole that the organizational objectives can be achieved through effective performance.
Inspite of the importance of communication for effective organizational performance, many business organizations in Nigeria today either attention is given to it. In the offices, most of the files are labeled confidential with the result that those who are supposed to utilize the information for effective performance are denied access to the facts. How can an organization member perform creditably well when he is not informed properly of what he is expected to do? When can an organization member know when he is contravening the rules and regulations if his organization when no-one has cared to make such known to him. How can such an organization expect to succeed or achieve it’s objective of those with whom and through whom it wished to achieved it’s objectives are not aware of “what” and “how” of the objectives.
Some business organizations experience high productivity while indolence and sick reports abound in public offices, strikes and the likes occur more frequently as a result of poor and ineffective communication between the management and members of the organization. None of these in any way aids the organization in it’s effort achieve it’s objectives. In view of this, the research hopes that this will help to direct the readers minds towards realizing the importance of effective communication in an organization. It is veracious that effective communication minimizes mis under standing and increases mutual understanding, trust and selfless services among organization employees.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
1.2.1 WORKERS ARE UNDER INFORMED OR NOT IN FORMED BY MANAGEMENT.
As earlier stated in the introduction, most of the conflicts and misunderstandings arises between individuals within an organization and between departments within an organization are as a result of the aftermath of lack of good and effective communication between the members and the management of the organization. The people are not informed or under informed on most of the plans of the organization especially those that affects them and their work. Many managers are disillusioned because major decisions affecting their departments are taken without their consent. Consequently, most of the policies passed down to them are regarded and treated with little or no seriousness. The result of all these is a feeling of discontent among organization members since their feeling and desires are suppressed and the aggrieved workers are bared from gaining access to the right quarters to lodge their complaints.
1.2.2 NON-CONSIDERATION OF CUSTOMERS WHEN MAKING POLICIES.
Some organization fall because their products are sold at a high price to their customers or that certain qualities desired of the product by the customers are not considered when producing.
Since the feeling of the customers are not put will fall thereby reducing the standard of the organization.
1.2.3 NON-MAINTENANCE OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION WITH HOST COMMUNITY:
The community within which the organization is situated may be lacking many things and may be looking forward to it’s fulfillment by the organization so it is important that an organization will maintain an effective communication with it’s host community in other to live up to the expectations of the community. Conclusively, I have to re-affirm that poorance. Therefore, every manager should do everything humanly possible to maintain good communication in his organization. Infact, communication is fundamental to the existence of every human organization.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
In view of the problems stated the purpose of this study is as follows:
1.3.1 Finding out the communication techniques used by Anambra motor manufacturing company ltd (ANAMMCO).
1.3.2 Finding out the system of communication used by the company especially the language methods used.
1.3.3 Finding out the type of communication within and outside the company.
1.3.4 Why and how the company communicates.
Based on the researchers findings, necessary suggest and recommendation will offered for general consideration and implementation where humanly and financially will be possible.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The significance of the study are:
1.4.1 Focusing the attention of managers to the importance of communication for effective performance.
1.4.2 The role of communication to achieve organizational set objectives.
Many organizations have not absorbed and implemented an effective communication system. This reflects on the organizational operation result, where strained relationship affects smooth operations. The researcher therefore, primarily aims at focusing the attention of business managers to the importance of communication for effective organizational performance. The role of communication to achieve the organizations set objectives.
Much emphasis has been laid on the efficiency and effectiveness of management on both public and private organizations to achieve reasonable economic growth it is said effective management implies effective organizational performance. This effective management cannot be guaranteed without effective communication. Also, the success of any organization is determined by how efficiently the ms-men, money, material and machine are been managed. The finding of the study will benefit not only the selected organization but also, other organizations for effective performance, fellow students will also find the study useful both in their academic work and their future careers as business managers.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the sex of the workers in ANAMMCO
2. What id the age of the workers in ANAMMCO
3. How many years have the workers served ANAMMCO
4. Have the workers worked elsewhere before joining ANAMMCO
5. What are the qualifications (Education) of ANAMMCO workers
6. How effective is communication system in ANAMMCO
7. How are workers oriented in the company
8. Does ANAMMCO have written procedure on communication.
9. How is communication handled in the company?
10. How high does the company rate communication
11. What methods are used to transmit information in ANAMMCO?
12. Which method is the most effective?
13. How do workers value the importance of communication for effective communication?
14. What is the general attitude to work of ANAMMCO workers like?
15. Does communication system has anything to do with workers attitude to work?
16. Is there delegation of authority in ANAMMCO?
17. Do workers know the objectives of the company?
18. What is the main direction of communication in the company?
19. Have the workers any recognized union?
20. How often does management hold meeting with workers
21. Is grapevine a good source of information for management
22. How does workers channel their grievances and suggestions in the company
23. Does workers know what a is involved in their work and what is expected from them?
24. Does the company inform workers in advance about changes that will affect their work and the business of the company?
25. Do workers book appointments before they see their supervisor for any reason?
26. Whenever workers discuss with their superiorly subordinates, does he:
a. Allow enough time for discussion?
b. Understand the feelings, needs and expectations of workers
c. Often get annoyed or disturbed?
d. Often give negative response?
e. Often terminate discussions claiming to be too busy?
( ) Does the attitude of superiors/subordinates encourage discussion with him freely?
( ) Are workers willing to hear criticism from their superior/subordinates freely
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
a. COMMUNICATION: A process, whereby ideas, information, facts, instinct ions, thoughts, opinions etc. are transmitted from one person to another. It can be verbal, non-verbal or written message, the use of a common system of symbols signs, behaviours etc. for the exchange of information.
b.CONCEPT: Idea, thought, plan, picture in the mind, purpose or opinion.
c.OPERATION: Transmitting, sending out of the message encoded.
d.ENCODED: Selecting the approximate media for easy transmission and understanding such media includes words or phrase, symbols, charts, facial expressions and gestures.
e.ORGANIZATION: A societal or a common purpose example of such includes churches, social clubs, and business organizations.
f.PERFORMANCE: The execution of an action, the fulfillment of a claim, promise etc. The ability to work efficiently performance in this content means the ability of the organization to accomplish its primary goals objectives.
g.ORGANIGRAM: The organization structure which is a framework of the formal relationships that have been established in an organization. It is a diagrammatic representation of the hierarchy of authority and the formal relationships that exist among the members of an organization.
h. AUTHORITY: The right to act and command others towards attainment of organizational goals. In the field of management, some authors define authority as the power to command performance
i.POLICIES: General statements that guide decision making in an organization. They are classified according to managerial levels and effected.
j.EFFICIENCY: The extent to which the result was achieved at least cost and it is determined by dividing output by input.
k.FEEDBACK: This refers to signals sent from the listener to the speaker in order to tell the speaker how far he is understand. It is a reaction that assure that communication has taken place.
l.DECODING: This is another important factor in communication and involved translating the message received in one’s own thought. Decoding is a clear proof of understanding a message.
m.MOTIVATION: The driving force that stimulates an individual; to action at is one of the directing functions of personnel management and its effectiveness depends on the style of management.