THE IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEE’S JOB PERFORMANCE IN AN ORGANISATION (A CASE STUDY OF ACCESS BANK PLC OKPARA AVENUE AND ABAKALIKI ROAD BRANCHES, ENUGU)
This study is aimed at determining the impact of motivation on employee‟s job performance in an organization. (A case study of Access Bank Plc). The purpose here is to investigate and identify factors responsible for the current state of affairs and seek to find practical solution for lack of staff motivation and job performance. The research design is survey research design comprising of opinions, impressions and perceptions of the respondents. The sampling technique was simple random sampling and proportionate stratified random sampling. In sampling opinion to collect data, the questionnaire was used. In all, a population of 60 staff of Access Bank comprising, top management middle management and junior staff were administered the questionnaire. The questionnaires were administered to them but only 50 responded comprising 28 males and 22 females. Simple percentage and chi-square were used to analyze the data collected and test the hypothesis stated. The result from the test of the hypothesis indicated that;
• Commensurate salaries and allowance paid to employee‟s of Access Bank Plc would motivated them toward higher job performance.
• Promotion of employees as at when due will motivate them toward higher job performance.
The researcher recommends that management of Access Bank Plc should try as much as possible to increase satisfaction of the employees who are not satisfied with salaries they are given to increase their inputs in the organization. The effects of this dissatisfaction can hinder the job performance of the organization.
Motivation means so many things to different people. Their impact on the individual depends also on his perception of what he considers to be of value to him and invariably influences his action or non-action. Motivation can be described as a set of incentives monetary of otherwise, reward and punishment systems which determine or influence staff performance and altitude to work. It is a production of human resource management and its impact goes on a long way in determining the quality and quantity of production and the level of industrial and labour harmony or disharmony in the organization.
Motivation can also be defined as the forces acting on or within a person that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of goal-directed, voluntary effort.
Work Motivation has been defined as “conditions which influences the arousal, direction, and maintenance of our behaviors‟ relevant in work setting”. Gbadamosi and Adebakin (1997, PP33) other scholars have variously defined motivation as “the act of stimulating some or oneself to get a desired course of action, to push the right button, to get a desired reaction. Julius Michael (1975,pp 265). “motivation is the process of creating organizational conditions which will impel employees to strive to attain company goals-Hodgetts,Richard (1977, pp 385) motivation is the influence or drive that causes us to behave in a specific manner and has been described as consisting of energy, direction and sustainability. Motivation is a driving force by which human achieve their goals. Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic:
Intrinsic motivation refers to motivations that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in that task itself, and exist within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual, common extrinsic motivation are reward like money and grades coercion and threat of punishment, competing is in general extrinsic because it encourage the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. The main purpose of motivation is to attain organization goals according to Koontz et al (1983: 14) “management requires the creation and maintenance of environment in which individuals work together in group toward the accomplishment of the objective” management has been faced with broad predicament since poor approaches were employed toward the attachment of organizational objectives.
These approaches are not without their strengths and weakness. In other worlds, firma are now faced with many complexes managerial predicament because of the phenomenon maintained above. Since the foremost aim of management of organization is the attainment of its objective. Little or no attention is paid to welfare of workers. As an outcome, the firm goals are defeated, since the workers are not motivated and cared for. The motivations range from inadequate to lack of motivation. Often management becomes dogmatic in their method of motivation as a result their expectation are defeated. It is pertinent for management to know what can motivate a single individual at a particular time and place would not motivate another person.
The expectation to drive from anything one is doing is a motivation force that forces the individual to work. According to Ajuogu (1996, pp 47) “motivation is an internal psychological process”. It is the motive power that makes people behaves the way they do.
1.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF ACCESS BANK
Access Bank Plc is a remarkable story of the transformation of a small obscure Nigeria Bank into an African Financial institution of note; with emerging foot prints on the international banking landscape. Access Bank today is one of the top 10 largest banks in Nigeria in terms of asset base. A phenomenal accomplishment considering its antecedents. The Beginning (1988-2002) December 19, 1988: Access Bank Issued a banking license.
February 8, 1989: Access Bank commenced operations at its Burma Road, Apapa Head Office.
March 24, 1998: Access Bank became a public limited liability company. February 5, 2001: Access Bank obtained a universal Banking license from the central Bank of Nigeria.
The board of director appointed Aigboje Aig-Imoukhuede as MD/CEO and Herbert Wigwe as Deputy Managing Director. The mandate was clear: “Reposition the bank to one of Nigeria‟s leading financial institutions within a five year period (March 2002-March 2007) this task was perceived by many as audacious, given the realities of the Bank at the time. Also appointed to the Board was M. Gbenga Oyebode who brought commendable board experience gathered from some of Nigeria‟s leading companies, such as MTN Nigeria, Okomu oil Palm Plc. The new management then articulated a transformation Agenda for Access Bank Plc. This agenda represented a complete departure from all that
characterized the bank in the past and became the road map for the transformation of the bank into a world class financial institution. The focus was to:
- Assemble a credible and high caliber management team
- Introduce a culture of excellence founded on professionalism and integrity.
- Ensure human capital development
- Enlarge shareholder base
- Introduce strong procedures and processes to drive day-to-day activities of the bank
- Instill a passion for customers in all members of staff
- Establish a low cost liability generation strategy
- Expand branch network to cover all clearing zones within Nigeria
- Create a world class Brand image.
The impact of the transformation agenda was reflected in the first year. The bank grew its balance sheet by 100% and posted an impressive N1billion in profit before tax. The profit before tax figure was more than the cumulative profit made by the bank in the last 12years. This also marked the beginning of what would be a 6 years record triple digit growth trend. Similarly, earning per share had rebounded to 21kobo from a negative 2kobo position, leading to a declaration of a 5kobo dividend to shareholders for the first time in 3 years February 1, 2012 Access Bank acquired intercontinental bank as part of their expansion program is to increase their capital base, to increase their branches and to serve their customer better.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
So many problems have be found or discovered to be a hindrance to the entire business sectors. In the since that most enterprise has not achieved significant supply of corporative workforce and optimum productivity.
It has been noted that employee‟s often complain about their wages and salary administration, poor working condition, welfare, effective supervision, provision of adequate machinery and materials at work place, provision of proper appliance and their maintenances etc. the above complaints are indications that things are not going smoothly with the employee‟s. on the other hand, management always ask why the employee‟s are not longer productive or low level of productivity in the organization.
We pay them good salaries provide good working condition and environment and give excellent fringe benefits. The solution to the above management questions often point to the managers that employee‟s are either not properly motivated or not satisfied with their job. Except opportunities are provided at work place to satisfy the workers needs they will continue to have decreased production and performance will always remain law. It was such alarming question that led some human relation experts into finding out what gives on individual’s job performance. These relationships between motivation and job performance have made many researchers work intensively on this area to find out dependable solutions to the problems.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study will among other things try:
- To find out what constitutes motivations and job performance to employee
- To find out what motivated employee mostly in an organization.
- To diagnose some of the incentive given by Access bank Plc which have strengthened the relationship between motivations on employee‟s job performance.
- To abstain what constitutes and efficient leadership style which will leads to increase in employee‟s job performance.
- To find out if employees are trained as at when due in other to increase their job performance etc.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study could be useful to Access Bank Plc, Enugu Metropolis, in improving their level of productivity and employee’s performance in future. It will also aid management in making decision on how employees could be motivated, not only with money but other incentives.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study will be carried out on Access Bank Plc, Enugu Metropolis, the data collected and other vital information are Limited to Access Bank Plc. This study strictly treats the impact of motivation on employee’s job performance.
Also the study does not show any concern or analyzing on any bank around it environment. The study should have covered all the banks in Enugu State but due to time and financial constraint, it was limited to Access Bank Plc, Enugu Metropolis.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This research work is specifically on the impact of motivation on employee job performance in Access Bank Plc. In the limitation on research work of this magnitude or nature can be carried out without limitation. Hence, during the course, certain constraints were encountered.
COST: the cost of thorough research is not what can be afforded by a student. The prices of materials needed for this work has gone up and transport fee has also gone up.
Time: the time was one of the limitations in the process of carrying out this research work.
SCARCITY OF LITERATURE: The research encountered some problems in collection of literature especially on the bank History and operations. This are hindered the smooth running of this work.
1.8 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In other to achieve the objective of this research effort will be made to provide answers to the following research questions:
What activities are perceived by Access Bank Plc on impact of motivation on employee‟s job performance?
How efficiently have these activities been implemented in other to attain organizational objectives?
Are employees of Access Bank Plc motivated terms of commensurate salaries and allowance?
Are employee‟s of Access Bank Plc promoted as at when due?
Are employees of Access Bank Plc involved decision making?
In other to attain the goals of this study the following research hypothesis are formulated for accurate empirical validation of this study:
Ho: The employee’s are not satisfied with the motivational and performance techniques employed by the Access Bank Plc Enugu Metropolis.
Hi: The employee‟s are satisfied with the motivational and performance techniques employed by the Access Bank Plc Enugu Metropolis.
Ho: Involvement of employee’s in decision making will not motivated them toward increase job performance.
Hi: Involvement of employee’s in decision making will motivated them toward increase job performance.
Ho: There is no direct relationship between motivation and employee’s job performance in Access Bank Plc Enugu metropolis.
Hi: There is direct relationship between motivation and employee’s job performance in Access Bank Plc Enugu Metropolis.
Ho: Commensurate salaries and allowances paid to the employee’s would not motivate them toward higher job performance.
Hi: Commensurate salaries and allowances paid to the employee’s would motivate them toward higher job performance.
Ho: Promotion of employee’s as at when due will not motivate them toward higher job performance.
Hi: Promotion of employee’s as at when due will motivate them toward higher job performance.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
MOTIVATION: it a social process in which some members try to influence others, to work harder, and work more efficiency. It is a person’s state of mind which energizes channels and sustains behavior to achieve the person’s needs. Motivation is also the willingness to do something and its conditioned actions and ability to satisfy some needs for the individual. It is also a driving force by which human‟s achieve their goals.
MOTIVE: The desire, wishes, and similar forces that channels human behavior toward goals. According to Collins English Dictionary: Motive is the psychological feature that arouses an organisms to action toward a desired goal, the reasons for an action that which gives purpose and desired goal, the reason for an action, that which gives purpose and direction to behavior.
Motive is divided into two: Rational and irrational motive:
RATIONAL MOTIVE: A motive that can be defended by reasoning or logical argument While
IRRATIONAL MOTIVE: A motive that is inconsistent with reason or logic.
INCENTIVES: A thing that motivates or encourages one to do something or a payment or concession to stimulate greater output or investment. Payment made to employee over and above their basic pay in order to encourage them to increase production, the payment are made on result achieve.
BONUS: A payment or gift added to what is usual or expected, in particular. Or an amount of money added to wages on a seasonal basic, especially as a reward for good performance. Part of the employee remuneration that is related in some way to value quantity of work done, especially a payment that is made at the description of management rather according to a set formula.
EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: This is contribution employees make to organization goals meaning how effective an employee carries out job responsibilities.
MOTIVATOR: Forces that induce individual to act or perform forces that influence human behavior.
BEHAVIOR: Manner of one’s conduct, demeanor department.
PRODUCTIVITY: Efficiency to do that which is expected and as expected. The relative efficiency of economic activity.
PERFORMANCE: Achievement and attainment of state goals. The act of carrying out a duty or accomplishing something such as a task or action
FRINGE BENEFIT: Any non wage or salary payment or benefit granted to employees by employers, example include pension plans, profit-sharing programs, vacation pay, and company paid life, health and unemployment insurance. 30
STAFF TURNOVER: Staff turnover is their leaving work or employment by termination, resignation, dismissal, retirement, death etc.
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