IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON WORKERS PRODUCTIVITY IN HIGHER INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING
This study emphasize on the impact of motivation on workers’ productivity in higher institution of learning as a tool for improving workers productivity in an institution in Nasarawa state university Keffi. The aim of the project is to look out how motivation could affect and enhance the achievement and goals of an institution. The concept of motivation have been explained by several scholar such as Maslow and penny in other to get necessary data in the study, both primary and secondary source were used, percentage were also used to analysis the data administered and collected through questionnaire and chi-square was used for data analysis and testing of hypothesis in the course of the research, it was found that the impact of motivation on workers’ productivity in Nasarawa state university Keffi has its entrance to workers performance, good incentive, environment and leadership style play an important role in staff performance because it raise their moral and reduce all manner of stress towards work. The recommendation is that good incentive and environment opportunities should be given to all staff in an institution without bias to improve staff skill and ability which raise their moral and encourage them to put effort towards productivity.
1.1 Background of the study
Behavioural scientists and scholars of management acknowledged that motivation has significance impact on individual work behaviour and organisation performance. Organisations need highly performing individuals in order to meet their goals to deliver the products and services to customers and to achieve competitive advantage. Performance is also important for the individual in accomplishing tasks. Performing at a high level can be a source of satisfaction, with feelings of mastery and pride, while low performance and not achieving goals might be experienced as dissatisfying or even as a personal failure [sonnentag & frees,2001]. Moreover, performance is often rewarded by financial and other benefits if recognised by others within the organisation. It is one of the prerequisites for future career development and success in the labour market.
In explaining the relationship between performance and motivation, Kamali et al.  used Maier  model for determinants of task performance to describe the relationship as follows:
Performance = Ability = motivation [effort]
Ability = aptitude = training = resources
Motivation = desire = commitment
According to these formulas, performance is a product of ability multiplied by motivation and ability is the product of aptitude multiplied by training and resource. The multiplicative functions in these formulas suggest that all elements are essential. For example, workers who have 100% of the motivation and 75% of the ability required to perform a task can perform at an above average rate.
Kamali et al.  concluded that motivation represents an employee’s desire and commitment, which is manifested as effort. Some people want to complete a task but are easily distracted or discouraged. They have high desire but low commitment. Others play along with impressive persistence, but their work is uninspired. These people have high commitment but low desire.
From this analysis, one would agree that having a motivated employee or creating an environment in which high level of motivation is maintained remain a very serious challenge for managers. The challenge for manager face is based on the simple fact that motivation is not a factor of fixed trait but something that could change in personality, psychology, finance and other social factors. This fact is supported by many theories of motivation.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The major need of any institution gearing towards productivity and success is human resources and these resources will not give in their best if they are not properly motivated. In order to find a lasting solution to the unproductive nature of the personnel. This research work examines the motivation system by highlighting the following:
Lack of adequate motivation coupled with lack of commitment, discipline and loyalty on the part of staff.
The reluctance of staff towards work due to lack of appropriate motivation.
Declination in workers job performance due to inadequate motivation.
The negative effect of autocratic leadership style to the morale of the staff.
How human resource strategies will be enhanced to ensure staff morale improvement.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The objective of the study is to examine the motivation policy of the Nasarawa state university as well as the impact, it has an employees work and if any impact on the policy of the institution that will call for research improved method.
- To evaluate the importance of human resource in an institution.
- To point out how motivation could affect and enhance the achievement of the goals of an institution.
- To find out the management perception regarding the relevance of motivation in an institution.
- To suggest how to solve the problems of staff motivation in an institution.
- To access the effectiveness of motivational pattern of Nasarawa state university.
- To provide the necessary solutions implementations strategies and of course, recommendation at the end of study. If these objectives are realized, there will be of much importance to the institution considering the sudden change in financial future in the nation. An analysis of motivation on staff ill obviously stimulates or encourages staff to embark on productivity which BENEFIT immensely the present generation.
1.4 Significance of the study
The purpose and importance of the study is to know why some staff of Nasarawa state university is not effective in terms of their output. The study will enable the management in higher institution of learning Nasarawa to motivate and to induce their subordinate to work effectively. It shall also encourage those who believe that analysing and applying non-financial incentives is a waste of time and resources to have a change of mind. The study is also important because it will enable the management of the above institution to give the motivational policy of an institution a top priority.
1.5 Research questions
This research however, provides same questions which will be answered in the project work and these also serve as a solution to the research findings. The researcher as a solution to the following question to elicit information on the solution of the problem, under investigation.
- What other way apart from staff remuneration can the institution consider for their staff?
- Why should the institution promote the spirit of self help in her staff?
- Where can the staff relation with co-staff be cardinal in the institution?
- Who among the staff benefit most from any kind of non-financial incentives?
- When is it necessary for the institution to actualize their goals as a source of work incentives?
1.6 Research hypothesis
Hypothesis is a conjugal statement made in relation between two or more variable normally stated in declarative or investigative form. Hypothesis is thus an important tool to thus research work, particularly as it specifies positions and directions along which the research problems for investigation. The research work is brought to highlight the analysis of motivation on staff’s productivity in an institution, Particularly in Nasarawa state university. This will be based on two hypotheses
- Null hypothesis[HO]:motivation of staff will not lead to higher productivity in a higher institution of learning
- Alternative hypothesis [Hi]: motivation of staff will lead to higher productivity in an institution of learning.
1.7 Scope of the study
This study will be on the analysis of motivation of staff productivity in Nasarawa state university; data will be gathered based on questionnaire method from academic staff of Nasarawa state university. This is done with the view to analysis the contribution of non-financial incentive on staff’s performance and the institution as a whole.
1.8 Limitation of the study
This research will faced with a lot of constraint in the coursed of the research work. Firstly, the inadequate time is most constraint encountered. Considering other academic work which the researcher has to attend well as other pressures.
1.9 Definition of Relevant Term
Due to the ambiguity of some words used in this research, the researchers find it necessary to define certain terms for the purpose of clarity and understanding.
Motivation: This is a driving force which stimulates an individual to act or behave in a certain way. This could be in positive or negative way.
- PERFORMANCE: Performance in respect of this research is the output and productivity of the workers.
- PRODUCTIVITY: This relate to effectiveness and efficiency in industry measured by comparing the with time used or the recourses use in having such output
- COMPENSATION: Compensation is the reward package extended to people to compensate them for something. it can be tangible, momentary or intangible such as health care e t c.
- EFFECTIVENESS: This is the ability to do the right thing at the right time that is the ability of any production to meet public demand.
- STAFF: All categories of worker in an organisation
- TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT: Training is the process involved in preparing a worker in there assign duties and job.
- EXTINCTION: Decreasing the frequency of working undesirable behaviour by making it contingent with the removal by a desirable consequence.
- REINFORCEMENT: This means giving incentive to worker or staff to make them work more. Reinforcement could be negative or positive increasing the frequency of strengthening desirable work behaviour by making it contingent with the occurrences of desirable consequence.
Abraham M. (1943) hierarchy of used theory of motivation New York Freeman.
Penny, H (1979), Success in Management Personnel Institute of Personnel Management London. pp 155-169.