THE IMPACT OF PACKAGING ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR (A CASE STUDY OF AVON COSMETIC)
This topic of this research work the influence of packaging on the consumer buying decision for consumers products in Imo State was carried out to investigate the influence of packaging on the purpose of this study the question-experimental research design was adapted to study the firm of confectionary goods, manufacturers.
The primary data was collected from the respondents using the questionnaire. After a critical analysis of the data collected, the hypothesis was tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the help of statistical product and service solution. (SPSS) packaging and the following findings were realized there is a relationship between product packaging and the consumer buying decision of confectionary products moderating factors do not regulate the relationship between firms, based on these findings, the following were recommended, packaging should be look upon as a cost tool or a production problem.
Again, confectionary manufacturers shall liaise with user of their product package so as to enable them know when there is need for improvement.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Approval page – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – v
Table of content – – – – – – – vi
1.0. Introduction – – – – – – -1
1.1. Background of the study: – – – – -1-4
1.2. Statement of problem: – — – -4-5
1.3. Objectives of the study: – – – – -6
1.4. Research questions: – – – – – -7
1.5. Significance of the study: – – – – -8
1.6. Scope of the study:- – – – – -8
1.7. Limitation of the study: – – – -9
1.8. Definition of terms: – – – – – -9-11
2.0. Literature Review: – – – – – -12
2.1. Introduction: – – – – – – -12-14
2.2. The concept of products: – – – – -14-18
2.2.1. Basic characteristics of product:
2.2.2 The role of a product:
2.3. The concept of marketing: — – – -18-22
2.4. Importance of packaging as a marketing tool: -22-29
2.5. Basic packaging functions: – – -30-32
2.5.1. The promotional function packaging could be used to give production favourable:
2.5.2. The protective function:
2.6. The product requirement: – – – -33-38
2.6.1. The distributors requirement:
2.6.2. Consumer requirements:
2.6.3. The legal requirement:
2.7. Problems of packaging: – – – – -38-39
2.8. Criticism of packaging: – – – – -39-41
2.9. Consumer buying decision: – – – -41-42
2.10. situational/environmental factors: – -42-46
3.0. Research methodology: – – – – -47
3.1. Introduction: – – – – – – -47-48
3.2. Research design: – – – – – -48-50
3.3. Sources/methods of data collection: – -50
3.4. Population and sample size: – – – -51
3.5. Sampling technique: – – – – -52
3.6.Validation and reliability of measuring instrument:52-53
3.7. Method of data analysis: – – – – -54-56
4.0. Presentation and analysis of data: – – -57
4.1. Introduction: – – – – – – -57-58
4.2. Presentation of data – – – – – -59-60
4.3. Analysis of data: – – – – – -61-107
5.0. Summary, conclusion & recommendation -108
5.1. Introduction: – – – – – – -108
5.2. Summary of findings: – – – – -109
5.3. Conclusion: – – – – – – -109-110
5.4. Recommendation: – – – – – -111
References – – – – – – -112-113
Appendix – – – – – – – -114
Questionnaires – – – – – – -115-121
Historically, management has considered packaging significantly only for the purpose of containing the product and had assigned the sole responsibility of packaging to the production department.
However, modern marketing managers regard packaging as a supplementary promotional tool for their product. It has been shown that in self service store, it is packaging that does selling, no wonder it is often regarded as the silent salesman.
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:
Sanitation, convenience in handling and use of safety and preservation.
Since 1979, when folding cartons was discovered, the packaging industry has grown steadily with period of rapid expansion occurring intermittently. The major revolution merchandising era when mass production teaching were inaugurated and individual sealed packaging replace bulk merchandize.
The most commonly used packaging materials include corks, asbestos, rubbers, plastics papers and several types of strong materials, such as lead glass, packaging has gone all the way back to the down of industry when primitive societies carry barriers centuries packaging primary roles was to hold, protect and transport goods from manufacturers to the users of industry goods.
A package therefore keeps a product intact and available to the final consumers in its original states, protecting the quality of the product from physical damage where the traditional purposes.
Kotler, (1984) defined packaging as the activities of designing and producing the containers for a product. He added that the containers is called the packaging and it might include there levels the primary (that contains the conduit) the secondary (that covers the primary containers) and the territory (that protect the entire product designing haulage). The type and levels of packaging adopted depends on the types of product market. Promotion on the other hand represents all those activities embarked upon the company to communicate its product merits and to persuade target customers to buy them.
Arowomole and Adeyemi (2004) defined packaging as the general group of activities in product planning that involves designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product. Packaging provides two major services for both consumers and produces that is it services as a product measure for the product and also promotional device. Some packages such as coke bottles are world famous.
Materials used to product goods, also as opportunity to present the brand and logo.
Packaging has recently been in importance at times it becomes very difficult to determine whether greater emphasis should be put on the productive function of packaging than on its promotional function. Formerly, most firms saw packaging as only a container for the physical product without realizing the other marketing importance of the product package especially its importance towards the promotion of the product. Due to the increase importance which is presently attached to promotional functions of be regarded as “any person” jobs.
The job of product packaging now rest on the hands for quality product managers or specialist trained in that particular field of marketing most organizations for more covalent package has pushed marketing managers to develop packaging with more acceptable materials, shapes and forms.
Poor packaging kills a product and can also dissatisfaction among channel intermediaries.
1.2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:
Despite the fact that numerous studies in the past have contributed to the theoretical and practical knowledge on packaging, demonstrated that packaging plays sufficient role in marketing of goods and services from all sectors of productive economy, yet quite a number of small and large scale manufacturers have shown less concern to packaging their product effectively.
Confectionaries especially the small one have been found waiting in this area.
The ability to corporate into packaging decision the right choice of materials, colour, shape, design, style, size and promotional information has been a major challenge facing marketing managers in the small and medium scale ventures.
Also the inadequate budget devoted to product packaging that affect effectives packaging decision of organizations.
It is as a result that this study is concerned with investigating how and the extent product packaging can change consumer decision.
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:
The purpose of carrying out this study is to ascertain the effect of product packaging (materials, design, shape, style, colour and promotional information) on consumer buying decision for confectionary products in Owerri, Imo State.
The study also has the following specific objectives;
- To determine the role of packaging features, (colour, design, shape, style, size and weight) affect the consumer buying of confectionaries.
- To understand how the promotional information/label contributes to consumer of choice of confectionaries.
- To find whether the choice of packaging material affects consumer patronage of confectionary product.
- To know whether the cost structure of packaging is justified by the marketing growth of confectionaries.
- To investigate whether moderating factor (government policies, technology, competition) affect the consumer buying decision of confectionary product.
Below are the research questions which this work is set to tackle.
- Does the choice of packaging materials affects consumer purchase of confectionary products?
- What roles do the packaging features (colour, size, shape, style, design and weight) play in the consumer for confectionary goods?
- How promotional messages do contributes to the consumption of confectionaries?
- Does the cost structure of packaging correspond with the expected marketing growth of confectionaries?
- Do the moderating factors (government policies, technology, competition) affect the relationship between packaging and the consumer buying decisions of confectionary products?
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
It has been proven that effectives packaging decision of firms enhance the market ability of their products. This work is relevant in the sense that it will enlighten manufacturers on the measure to be adopted to sustain the effect packaging has on consumer buying decision process and in building a loyal customers.
This study will also be of academic value since the contents could be used as a basic for other studies on packaging.
The findings of the intended are expected to contribute to the body of existing knowledge in the area of packaging and its influence.
1.6. SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
This research study is intended to investigate and appraise packaging as it affects manufacturers of confectionaries in Owerri, Imo State. It will outline the various roles packaging play in selling off confectionaries.
1.7. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:
Again, in carrying out this research, the researcher was confronted with a number of problems and limitations owing to financial and time constraint, the researcher was unable to travel to other parts of the country for effective data collection hence, the researcher for effective data collection was carried out in Owerri metropolis.
Respondents were equally reluctant to respond to the questionnaires in spite of the fact that assurance was given by the researcher that every information gathered would be held in strict confidence.
Finally, some respondent do not have the requisite knowledge or are unwilling to disclose the facts where they are available.
DEFINITION OF TERMS:
PACKAGING: This is refers to the general activity of developing a wrapper or container for a product.
SUPPLEMENTARY PROMTIONAL TOOL: This refers to supportive means if including sales other than advertising personal selling, sales promotional and publicity.
SELF SERVICE STORE: These are specialize outlets which he have stock displayed on shelves for customer easy access.
PRODUCTS: This is anything that can be offer to a market for attention, acquisition and consumption and must safety the consumers need.
SILENT SALEMEN: This refers to the ability of product packaging to include an exchange process.
BRAND MARK: This refers to the aspect of a product that has a legal right and protect the product from limitation.
BUYING DECISION: This is the ability to decide quickly and confidentiality on which product to buy, how to buy, where to buy it and when to buy it.
INFLUENCE: This is the power to produce an effect, especially on character, beliefs or actions.
CONFECTIONARY PRODUCT: Thee are those products that are been made with flour, fat and water. Examples of those products are cake, meat pie, peanuts and chin-chin e.t.c.
LOYAL CUSTOMERS: These are the group of people who belief that a company’s products are the best as such they develop confidence in buying the firm’s product.
MANUFACTURER: A company or person who makes or product goods or production on large scale with machinery.