THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC OPINION ON PUBLIC POLICY IN NIGERIA: AN APPRAISAL OF 2010-2012
This research work that analysis on the impact of public opinion on public policy in Nigeria from 2010-2012 while narrowing it down to the economic policy of deregulation or fuel subsidy removal of 2012. Broadly divided into five chapters, the work breakdown how governmental decisions are being influenced by the opinions of the people in the democracy of Nigeria. History had it that before the discovery of oil, agriculture gave Nigeria about 70% of her income until now oil has earned Nigeria a higher foreign income. Hence, this work fills the gap and age answers to questions on whether public policies are products of public opinion, the impact of public opinion on public policies and if the deregulation is a solution to poverty and underdevelopment. The system theory became the theoretical framework which deals on policy input and policy output. A historical analysis was made on the topic was made, while the effect of public opinion on public policies were also discovered. Policies for managing poverty and underdevelopment were broken-down in the work. At the end, the work gives an insight and explains the reasons behind policy making in Nigeria and also gave possible solutions to the issue.
Table of Content
Table of Contents ————————————–viii-x
Chapter One: General Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study —————————1-8
1.2 Statement of the Problem—————————-8-11
1.3 Objective of the Study———————————–12
1.4 Literature Review ————————————12-31
1.5 Significance of the Study——————————–32
1.6 Theoretical Framework——————————32-37
1.8 Methods of Data collection and Analysis————-38
1.9 Scope and Limitations of the Study——————-38
1.10 Definition of Terms.——————————–39-41
Chapter Two: The Influence of Public Opinion on Public Policy: A Historical Analysis
2.1 The Colonial Era.———————————–42-53
2.2 The Military Era————————————-53-69
2.3 The Civilian Era————————————-69-90
Chapter Three: The Impact of Public Opinion on Public Policy in Nigeria.
3.1 The Abrogation of the Anglo-Nigerian Defence Pact
and the Rejection of the Non-Aligned
3.2 The Rejection of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Loan and the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) Membership.—————-102-114
3.3 Establishment of Anti-Corrupt Agencies and Palliative measures.—–114-127
Chapter four: Policies for Managing Poverty and Underdevelopment in Nigeria.
4.1 The Policy of Nationalization and
4.2 The Policy of Poverty Alleviation.———–138-156
4.3 The Policy of Deregulation and the Opinion against
Chapter five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Chapter One: General Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study.
Since independence in 1960 in Nigeria, different governments have embrace on one programme or another. The research work is to examine the activities of the public opinion on public policy from 2010-2012, hence, narrowing it down to an economic reform policy of the deregulation of the downstream oil sector in Nigeria, also known as the fuel subsidy removal in Nigeria.
Nigeria is a democratic nation. One of the principles of democracy is the operation of fundamental human rights, which of allows for the freedom of speech, which is on the view of the majority, influencing governmental decisions. Public policy as applied to politics is seen as a statement of a principal with their supporting rules of action, that conditions and governs the achievement of their goals. Government usually engages in different programmes, as the government is the authoritative body because they are backed up by the law. Government also has both power and authority to execute their duties and also ensure compliance. These programs are directed towards solving a particular programmes or preempting them. Therefore, programmes are not just mode for fun of making them, they are made to solve the societal needs. They entail the expenditure of public funds.
Before colonization, the economies of the different kingdoms that now constitute the Nigeria political entity were based on agriculture. Since independence in 1960, the role of agriculture in the economy of Nigeria has been on the downward trend with regards to its contribution to GDP. Its share to GDP fell from 61.5% in 1963/1964 to 14.6% in 1983. This has been partly due to the emergence of oil-Reynolds (1975) argued that agricultural development can promote economic development of the underdeveloped countries in four different ways:
1. By increasing the supply of food available for domestic consumption and realizing the needed labour for industrial employment.
2. By enlarging the size of the domestic market for the manufacturing sectors.
3. By increasing the supply of domestic savings
4. By providing the foreign exchange earned by agricultural exports.
Since the discovery of oil, which earns us our foreign exchange, agriculture has been abandoned. Exploration for crude petroleum oil in Nigeria first began in 1980. But serious and sustained efforts did not happen until shell Darcy petroleum Company commenced operations in 1935. It took this company more twenty years to discover petroleum crude oil in commercial quantities in Oloibiri in 1956. Nevertheless, oil price has never been satiable in the country as successive governments keep adjusting the price upwards beyond the affordability of the common citizens of the oil producing country. Like in the price of petroleum products is a global phenomena problem in the international market.
Specifically, oil prices in Nigeria have been on a continuous increase since the beginning of 2004 and this has happened despite the organization of petroleum Exporting countries (OPEC) increase in its oil out put. Earlier in 2004, the run up in oil price was attributed to surging demand for petroleum products due to global economy. Then, it was the unrest in Nigeria. Concerning the security of oil, supplies have heightened more recently. Nigeria is the sixth oil producing nation in the world.
The subsidy removal on fuel has increase the price of oil. In the past, the increase in price occurred mostly in the extent of disruption to oil supply. Now, the deregulation policy has heightened the price of oil disruption of oil supply. There is concern the current step rise in the price of oil as a result of the removal of subsidy on fuel could have an adverse impact on the Nigeria economy; that is currently on road to recovery and expansion. When oil is expensive, people try to use less of it. They may reduce the amount they derive on reduce the temperature to which they heat their houses, which their minor economies will have little or nothing on consumption Higher have less money to spend on other things. This reduces because most goods and services the consumer would have bought have required the use of oil for their production and delivery. If higher oil prices reduce consumer demand very much manufacturers and retails will find that their profits suffer and that they have surplus capacity. They will therefore, deter their plans for expansion. This will result in very large energy savings because work is energy intensive.
The concept of public policy can be seen as simply governmental actions or course to proposed actions that are directed to achieving goals (Ikelugbo 1999). Care Frederick (1980) defined it as government or one of its divisions by government. The main idea of public policy is that it has to do with the government. It is an action or sets of actions taken by public authorities, it is the out put or production of governmental process and activities. Public involves and affects the wide verity of areas and issues with which government have to do such as the economy, education, health, defence, social welfare, foreign affairs as well as other areas like culture. Sometimes, the government adopts the state coercive agencies like the police to enforce and ensure compliance of policies. Also these coercive agencies end up losing their lives in the course of ensuring compliance. A case study is in Ilorin, Kwara state a police officer and a youth were feared dead. Their death occurred during a violent demonstration by the youths that engaged the youths and police into a two hours fight, throwing missiles which led to the use of live bullets by the police.
The subsidy removal on fuel is an economic policy. Nigeria adopted several economic policies for development. The introduction of economic reform programmes started after her independence in 1960. During this period, Niger derived to embark on a programme for development, which they saw its importance for gaining economic independence especially. Still at that, the past colonial masters of Nigeria still control the affairs of the nation. While the past-independent leaders sort assistance from them for development. This was done through the iprotation of industrial technology amongst others, while the assisting countries will give out their conditions. And any developing country like Nigeria that will not submit to the scheme of economic demands or conditions of those aiding them or will not accept their advice and control, usually, will have little choice of developing.
The economic policy have been seen or have given the impression that it is a policy which has been influenced by the western countries or foreign investors based on their interest in the country‘s oil; another way the westerns want to dominate Nigeria again. This has elicited stiff resistance by the Nigeria public through labour unrest and mass protest.
This study therefore, attempts to assess the impact of public opinion on public policy in Nigeria, using the deregulation of the downstream oil sector or oil subsidy removal as our analytical focus.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
It is obvious that the present democratic rule in Nigeria has witnessed increase price increase of petroleum products more than during the past military administrations.
Since independence, successive governments in Nigeria have embark on various policies geared towards developing their country. The first development plan was carried out during the year of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (1962-1968), the second was during the era of General Yakubu Gowon (1970-1974), the third was during the era of General Murtala Mohammed (1975-1980), Green Revolution by the government of General Olusegun Obasanjo, Alhaji Shehu Shagari 91981-1985) carried out the operation Feed the Nation Policy (OFN), War Against Indiscipline (WAI) was carried out by the government of general Muhammadu Buhari in 1989, General Ibrahim Babangida carried out the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) between 1990 and 1992, General Sani Abacha carried out the policy on War Against indiscipline and Corruption in 1997. At the advert of democratic rule in 1999, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo embarked on economic reform programme, encapsulated in the privatization, liberalization and deregulation programmes.
Notwithstanding, these array of programmes, Nigeria is still looking for a better way for advancement and development as none of these economic reforms of the country. Deregulation of the downstream sector started during Obasanjo’s regime as an economic told that will enhance or foster development. This was justified on the grand that the downstream sector or the oil sector is riddled with corruption as a result of mismanagement and inefficiency.
Same Nigerians especially the political observes see it as a good step that will save Nigeria from her present economic problems. Other see it as a means whereby few people will benefit, which a large number pf the citizens will not, instead, it will be detriment to them. To some scholars also, it is a channel for development while other sees it as a new way or means of penetrating and exploiting Nigeria by the western world. None has however emphasized the role of public opinion in influencing the formulation or abrogation of public policies to assuage the yearning of the populace. This research work therefore attempts to fill this gap to the extent liter by seeking answers to the following questions:
1. Are public policies in Nigeria a product of public opinion?
2. To what extent has public opinion impacted on public policies in Nigeria?
3. Is the deregulation of the down stream oil sector a panacea to poverty and underdevelopment in Nigeria?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This work is channeled at the critical examination and analysis of the impact of public opinion on public policy.
Specifically, the study intends to:-
1. To ascertain if public policies in Nigeria are products public opinion.
2. To ascertain the impact of public opinion in public policies in Nigeria.
3. To determine if the deregulation of the downstream oil sector is a panacea to poverty and underdevelopment in Nigeria.
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