Impacts of Manpower Training and Development on Productivity of Workers in an Organization
A Study of Selected Firms in Enugu: Access Bank Plc, Nigerian Breweries Plc, First Bank Plc, Emenite Limited Nigeria Bottling Company Ltd
Impacts of manpower training and development on productivity of workers in an organization. The objectives of the study include; To highlight the need for manpower planning and development in these organization, to determine the nature of the relationship between personal training and development and staff performance, to ascertain the impact of training on productivity of employees and organizations, to know if there are social and personal benefits resulting from the training, to find out if manpower planning, training and development provide job satisfaction to employees. Primary and secondary data were used. The population of the study was 240, from which the sample size of 150 was determined using Taro-Yamani formula. The research instrument used were questionnaire and interview. Chi-square was used to test the hypothesis. The findings from the study include There are needs for manpower planning and development in banks and manufacturing companies, There is a relationship between manpower training and production in an organization, Training improves the productivity of employees and the organization, There are social and personal benefits resulting from the training, Manpower planning, training and development provide job satisfaction to employees.. The researcher made this recommendation; As a result of importance of manpower planning and development, the training and development should not be for selected employees to the neglect of others. This is because it is possible for those regarded as high potential employees not to meet the predicted standard, while those initially neglected improves overtime, organizations should continue to encourage its staff to participate in training and development programmes, firms should expand, upgrade and equip all its satellites training centers for maximum benefit and utilization, Though organizations provide external training for their trainers, it is necessary to bring in external training consultants to the training centers occasionally to improve the quality of the programme, Course related jobs should be assigned to the employees after training and Course related jobs should be assigned to the employees after training.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
There are a number of factors that contribute to the success of any organization, these factors include: capital, equipment, manpower, etc. All these factors are important but the most significant factor is the human factor. Since it is the people that will put the other resources to work, it should be viewed as such by management by giving it due attention in order to achieve its organizational goals and objectives.
Manpower planning aimed at ensuring that the right person is available for the right job at the right time. This involves formulating a forward looking plan to ensure that the necessary human effort to make it possible for the survival and growth of the organization, it becomes imperative to develop the employee.
Udeze (2000:90), posits that training is like sharpening of an existing skill in order to reflect the trends in technology and other socio-cultural environment of an organization. The major object of training and development is to increase the efficiency of the employee with resulting increase in corporate productivity.
Diejemoah (2001:23), Manpower development is a process of intellectual and emotional achievement through providing the means by which people can grow on their jobs. It relates to series of activities, which an enterprise would embark upon to improve its managerial capacity. Manpower development is important in any discussion of strategic human resources management.
These emphasis on manpower and development is influenced by the belief that it is now desirable to focus more attention on areas which in the past has been relatively neglected because every organization regardless of its size must provide for the needs, interest and desire of its employee within the work environment if it is to earn loyalty, dedication, involvement and commitment necessary to compete effectively.
Since the early 1960, the human factor of production of manpower as it is alternatively called, has increasable been recognized as the most critical resource of the factors without which an effective utilization of all other factors remain a dream. Although, it might to tempting to attach more importance to the availability of physical resource such as capital and equipment undermining that they are mere passive factors of production, which depend on human intellectual which is the active agent to exploit them in order to achieve the objective of the organization. Thus, the human factor (manpower) is the main stay of the organization. In other words, the success of an organization depends on the ability and expertise of those who operate it both at the managerial and lower levels of operation, such abilities and expertise usually stems from the knowledge they possess and training received.
Graham (2001:19) says human being constitutes the ultimate basis of a nation’s wealth. This proposition applies to the organization, which implies that with daily increase and complexity in the organizational activities and the problem ensuring optimum productivity which is fast becoming a challenge as well as imperative for the management of organization, thus, training and development of staff on whom the huge responsibility of furthering these goals rest, must take top priority if the organization must continue to enjoy maximum performance from the staff. The main objective of setting up a company is to make profit and to achieve this organizational goal; adequate manpower planning and development programmes should be put in place to enhance performance.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The human resources (manpower) is considered the most critical to any organizational survival of a truism that adequate supply of material and financial resources that utilizes these available resources to bring about the desired goals. However, most organizational plans meticulously for their investment in physical and capital resources and these plans are reviewed with utmost attention to detail while rarely do such organizations pay attention to human investment in which the capital and equipment will be in vain. Not many organizations consider the necessity for a well-defined and sustained training and development for staff in order to upgrade their performance or they are not able to cope financially with training and development programmes.
The very few organizations that give thought to this very important aspect of staffing functions do so with lack of seriousness; all round attention and continuity. The programmes are carried out not only once in a blue moon but are also lopsided in terms of content and staff participation. As a result of this, lackadaisical attitude of management towards training and manpower development. There had been a progressive decline in the ability of manpower to cope with the challenges that attend the over unfolding new dispensation in the industry, in the circumstance, what we find is that the rise in industrial output is inconsequential in spite of the enormous wave of modern technology that now exist in industrial activities.
It is the opinion of industry observes that the poor performance of the organization-workers follows from their inability to keep abreast with the new technological current as a result of the absence of appropriate and sufficient staff training. It is against this background that the researcher considered the impact of performance training and development on organizational performance of this mission, however, the researcher used some selected firms such as : Access Bank Plc, Nigeria Breweries Plc, First Bank Plc, Emenite Limited and Nigerian Bottling Company Plc.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ARE AS FOLLOWS:
i To highlight the need for manpower planning and development in these organization.
ii To determine the nature of the relationship between personal training and development and staff performance.
iii To ascertain the impact of training on productivity of employees and organizations.
iv To know if there are social and personal benefits resulting from the training.
v To find out if manpower planning, training and development provide job satisfaction to employees.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Is there relationship between manpower training and development and staff performance?
2. Does training improve productivity on employees and organizations?
3. Are there social and personal benefits resulting from the training?
4. Is there any need for manpower planning and development in banks and manufacturing companies?
5. Do manpower planning, training and development provide job satisfaction to employees?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The testable hypotheses of this research study are the following:
Ho: There is no direct relationship between manpower training and productivity in an organization.
H1: There is direct relationship between the manpower training and productivity in an organization.
Ho: Training does not improve the productivity of employees and the organization.
H1: Training improves the productivity of employees and the organization.
Ho: There are no needs for manpower planning and development in both banks and manufacturing companies
H1: There are needs for manpower planning and development in both banks and manufacturing companies.
Ho: Manpower planning, training and development do not provide job satisfaction to employees
H1: Manpower planning, training and development provide job satisfaction to employees
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In spite of all efforts geared towards improving the services of that banking and manufacturing industries, there are some doubts as to the quality of services rendered by both industries to its customers in particular and the nation in general. It is in light of this that the researcher through the work intend to look into the factors militating against Access Bank Plc, Nigerian Breweries Plc, First Bank Plc, Emenite Limited and Nigeria Bottling Company Ltd in achieving its sets objectives, by this, the study will look into the manpower base and quality of staff of the selected firms and assess their suitability with the aim of developing training programmes to enhance their performance since the progress of an organization is a function of the quality of those directing its affairs. The importance of this cannot be overemphasized especially in these periods when most companies are international standard complaint. It therefore improves a company to plan and train its workers for the best quality of work to be relevant in the scheme of globalization.
This is particularly directed to establishment that are prone to think that the intractable problems of their organization is finance and not manpower planning and development it will also evaluate aspects of the recruitment, selection and training process, which bear strong relevance to corporate image, productivity efficiency and morals. For the management of these selected firms, the benefit of training and development is that quality of work, life of the employees will reciprocate with increase performance on the job.
This will go a long way in providing job satisfaction and services as motivation towards the realization of individual aspiration; it will also be relevant to the human resource development department in the formulation of policies relating to training and development of personnel and for the government, to ensure adequate training and know-how to improve the economy as a whole.
Finally, this research work when completed will be of great importance to the researcher for the partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of Master in Business Administration (MBA). It will also be useful to other students and researchers in general.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is done in Enugu State. The researcher used five firms, from banking and manufacturing industries. There are: Access Bank Plc,
Nigerian Breweries Plc,
First Bank Plc,
Nigeria Bottling Company Ltd
All the steps involved in this research were completed within some months period ( 2013 to 2014).
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Some banks and manufacturing firms were selected for this study. The study was also limited to employees of these firms. One of the problems the researcher encountered was that some officers were either too busy for interviews or cleverly avoided certain questions for the fear that the information given might put their jobs in jeopardy. Those who responding to questions tend to make their answers to reflect what ought to be rather that what is, this undoubtedly affected the quality and accuracy of information collected during the study.
A large population of the staff falls among the junior staff and as such, it is difficult to really get their opinion as regards manpower development as they are shy to respond and do not really appreciate the importance of development. A lot of finance was also required in making this project a reality, thus, the researcher was faced with the problem of finance and time.
These difficulties notwithstanding the researcher made concert efforts to ensure that the research was comprehensively carried out to meet the desired needs.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Effects was made at defining the following terminologies use in this study to avoid ambiguity and elicit proper understanding.
Ø Development: This is the process concerned with people’s capacity in a defined and over a period to manage and involve positive change, and reduce or eliminate unwanted change.
· Manpower: Power of human physical strength. Power in terms of the workers available to a particular group or required for a particular task. These include unskilled, skilled supervisory and management staff of a company.
· Planning: Setting objectives and deciding on the best ways of achieving the objectives.
· Empirical: Of people or method guided only by practical experience rather than by scientific ideas.
1.10 PROFILE OF SELECTED ORGANIZATION
i) Access Bank Plc
Access Bank Plc is a remarkable story of the transformation of a small obscure Nigeria Bank into an African financial institution of note; with emerging footprints on the international banking landscape. Access Bank today is one of the top 10 largest banks in Nigeria in terms of asset base.
The beginning (1988-2002)
December 19, 1989: Access Bank was issued a banking license February 8, 1989: Access Bank incorporated as a privately owned commercial bank.
May 11, 1989: Access Bank commenced operations at its Burma Road, Apapa Head Office.
May 24, 1989: Access Bank became a public Limited Liability Company.
November 18, 1998: Access Bank listed on the Nigeria Stock Exchange.
February 5, 2001: Access Bank obtained a Universal Banking License from the Central Bank of Nigeria.
The bank grew its balance sheet by 100% and posted an impressive n1 billion profit before tax. The profit before tax figure was more than the cumulative profit made by the bank in the previous 12 years.
Similarly, earning per share had rebounded to 21 kobo from a negative 2 kobo position, leading to a declaration of a 5 kobo dividend to shareholders for the time 3 years.
ii) Nigerian Breweries Plc
Nigerian Breweries plc, incorporated in 1946, is the pioneer and largest brewing company in Nigeria. Its first bottle of beer, STAR Lager, rolled off the bottling lines of its Lagos Brewery in June 1949. Other breweries were subsequently commissioned by the company, including Aba Brewery in 1957, Kaduna Brewery in 1963, and Ibadan Brewery in 1982. In September 1993, the company acquired its fifth brewery in
Enugu state, and in October 2003, it’s sixth brewery, sited at Ama in Enugu. Ama Brewery is the largest brewery in Nigeria and one of the most modern worldwide. Operations at Enugu brewery were discontinued in 2004 while the company acquired a malting plant in Aba in 2008.
In October 2011, Nigeria Breweries acquired majority interest in Sona System Associates Business Management Limited, (Sona Systems) and Life Breweries Limited from Heineken N.V. This followed Heineken’s acquisition of controlling interest in five breweries in Nigeria from Sona Group in January 2011.
Sona Systems’ two breweries in Ota and Kaduna, and Life Breweries in Onitsha have now become part of Nigeria Breweries Plc, together with the three brands: Goldberg lager, Malt Gold and Life Continental lager.
The company has a portfolio of high-quality brands, including
· Star Lager( launched in 1949) Pale Lager
· Gulder Lager( launched in 1970) Pale Lager
· Legend Extra Stout (launched in 1992) 7.5% ABV Extra Stout
· Heineken Lager (launched in 1998) Premium Lager
· Goldberg Lager (launched in 2011)
· Life Continental Lager (launched in 2011)
· Maltina in three varieties, namely Maltina Classic, Maltina Strawberry, and Maltina Pineapple; Malitna Sip-it (2005) in tetrapak (1976)
· Amstel Malta (1994)
· Fayrouz in pear and pineapple (2006)
· Climax Energy drink
· Malta Gold (2011)
All products are available in cans. Fayrouz is also produced in P.E.T Bottles.
iii) First Bank Plc
First Bank has solidified itself as a brand of fortitude, strength and innovation in the Nigeria financial sector since its inception in 1894. The iconic African elephant with navy blue and ivory colour has been a national symbol of one of the biggest international players in the financial services industry to date.
First Bank of Nigeria is a Nigerian bank and financial services firm. It is the country’s third biggest bank.
1894- Incorporated in Liverpool as the bank for British West
1896- Opened first international branch in Accra, Ghana.
1969- Incorporated locally as the standard Bank of Nigeria Ltd.
1971- Listed on the Nigeria Stock Exchange
2002- Established the first off shore financial subsidiary of a Nigeria-owned bank in the UK
2005- Acquired too banks MBC international Bank Ltd and FBN (Merchant Bankers) Ltd.
2007- Floated first-ever hybrid capital offering out of Africa.
Floated Nigeria’s biggest offer.
At the end of September 2011, the bank had asset totaling approximately US$18.6 billion (NGN: 2.9 trillion). The bank’s profit after tax for the nine months ending 30 September 2011 was approximately US$270.2 million (NGN: 42.2 billion)
Portfolio and Service
Individuals: Savings Account, Current Account, Fixed Deposit
Account and First Premium Term Deposits
Large Corporates: Accounts, Loans, E-solution E-Banking- First Online, First Mobile, First Guard
Services: E payment, Money Transfer, Taxes and Duties, Bills and Utilities, Collection and School Solution.
iv. Emenite Limited
From its premises at Emene on the Outskirts of the Coal City, Enugu, the capital city of Enugu State, situated in the South Eastern part of Nigeria, Emenite Limited controls the manufacture and marketing of it’s fiber ceiling, roofing and Modular house products.
Since its incorporation in 1961, the company has gained a wealth of experience through meeting the requirements of the construction industry in promoting the development of Nigeria through the manufacture and marketing it’s fibre cement roofing and ceiling products and is poised to help in the future through the supply of high quality goods and services. With the assistance of its European partners, the Belgian Etex Group, the company is well able to meet the requirements of the demanding market. The company size range is 501-1000 employees.
The mission of this company is to be the leader in the manufacturing and scale of the high quality building products with zero waste management culture and to sustain the business in a profitable manner.
v. Nigerian Bottling Company Ltd
The Nigeria Bottling Company Ltd is one of the biggest companies in the non-alcoholic beverage industry in the country and is the franchise bottler of the Coca-Cola Company in Nigeria. The company is part of the Coca-Cola Hellenic Group, one of the largest bottlers of the Coca-Cola Company’s products in the world, and the biggest in Europe. Coca-Cola Hellenic operations span 28 countries, serving more than 570 million people. The company is headquarter in Athens and listed on the Athens, New York and London stock exchanges NBC Ltd started operations in Nigeria in 1951. Based in the
city of Lagos, it operates 13 bottling plants across the country. They channel products through 59 warehouses distribution centers.
The company product portfolio consists of:
· Leading brands Coca-Cola light, Fanta and Sprite.
· Local brands such as Schweppes, Five Alive, Limca and Eva.
Udeze, J.O. (2000), Human Resources Management in Nigeria:
JOEBEST Books, 56 Moore House Street, Ogui Enugu.
Diejemoah, V.P. (2001), Development of Manpower in Nigeria, Ibadan: University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Graham, H.T. (2001), Human Resource Management, London: M & E Handbook, McDonald and Evans Limited.