INDUSTRIALIZATION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT (A STUDY OF IDEATO NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT IMO STATE)
The rural sector of Nigeria has not witnessed significant level of development in the past 56 years of the nation’s independence. This is evidenced in the apparent lack of basic infrastructure facilities and abysmal poor quality of life in the rural areas. This situation is so in spite of the contribution of the rural areas to the overall national development. This research work, thus examines how the process of industrialization in rural areas, could foster the development in Nigeria hinterland. It pays particular attention to rural communities in Ideato North Local Government of Imo State. In gathering the data for the study, we relied on primary and secondary sources of information. And adopted descriptive method of research in our analysis. The study submits or observes the existence of insufficient emphasis on rural development policies by successive government. Coupled with laxity in implementing few of such policies. It thus, submits that enhanced / aided localization of cottage industries could engender economic growth and development in rural areas.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Most developing nations define industrialization as central objectives of their economic policy they see, industrialization goes with agricultural process as an integral part of growth and structural changes. Some economist and analyst are of the view that industrialization plays a major in the economic growth and development of any nation.
In this work, effort is made to assess the impact of industrialization in economic growth of Nigeria. Since 56 years of nation’s independence, there were numerous economic activities undertaken by Nigerians. Nigerian were among the most active and insurious group of people in African. The economic activities were based mostly on primary production especially on agriculture, fishing and rearing of livestock.
The rural sector of Nigeria is, very vital in the socio-economic development equation of the nation. It is, as observed by Nyagba (2009) that the most important sector of the Nigerian population is the rural areas. For instance, the rural sector is the major source of capital formation for the country and a principal market for domestic manufactures (Olatunbosun, 1975). As a matter of fact, the rural areas engage in primary economic activities that form the foundation for the country’s economic development. Given the contributions of the rural sector to the national economy, enhancing the development of the sector should be central to government.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem associated with the subject matter is as stated in the following:
- Inadequate capital:
It is very difficult to raise sufficient fund in the rural area when income is low. The propensity to consume it will be high the state and central government spend so much on urban development and industries in the rural area because it citizen needs all those things for a better line hood.
- Lack of Skilled Workers:
There ate few of businessmen, they are forced to empty men from the urban centers because hey well trained and better equipped as result skilled workers are not found in the rural areas.
- Some Market for Industrial Goods:
many people are drive in poverty and penury, therefore industries produce goods that can be bought nearly by everybody example, shoes, plastics, utensil, cloths etc through population is high but people lack the necessary purchasing power.
- Shortage of Certain Materials:
Some law materials are not produce in the rural area, this fact militates against the setting up of some industries.
countries should be done. The arm is to lay guidelines for future administrative reforms that will be meaningful for national development.
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK:
The theory of scientific management as was propounded by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s was adopted because of his strong believe that Taylor ejected the notion, which was universal in his day and still held today, that the trades, including manufacturing, were resistant to analysis and could only be performed by craft production methods. In the course of his empirical studies, Taylor examined various kinds of manual labour. For example, most bulk materials handling was manual at the time; material handling equipment as we know it today was mostly not developed yet. He looked at shoveling in the unloading of railroad cars full of ore; lifting and carrying in the moving of iron pigs at steel mills; the manual inspection of bearing balls; and others. He discovered many concepts that were not widely accepted at the time. For example, by observing workers, he decided that labour should include rest break so that the worker has time to recover from fatigue, either physical (as in shoveling or lifting) or mental (as in the ball inspection case). Workers were allowed to take more rests during work, are productivity increased as a result
The scientific management theory which was propounded by Fredrick Taylor (1911) it concern was to improve organizational efficiently and economy for the sake of increased production. The most outstanding characteristic of scientific management was its view of man. Man was perceived as being an adjunct of the machine the primary objectives of scientific management was to make men as efficient i.e more like as the machine they operated. The views of this theory through are identified with Fredrick Taylor, he concentrated on intensive analysis of work processes at the level of the shop and individual worker. He also emphasized the need for professional management, the scientific study and design of work procedures and the creation of an ethics promotion the mutuality of interests between workers and the organization.
Thus, he concentrated on research and experiments intended to discover the “one best way” to carry out specific tasks. The management point of a business organization form the scientific management point of view is based upon four main principles (Frilley/House, Kerr 1996) which lead to attainment of economic efficiency which is major goal of a business.
- a) The development of an idea or best method. This includes: The primary analysis means of each job to determine the “one best way” of doing it; the primary means of analysis was time, motion and study.
- b) The scientific selection and progressive development of the woman. This involved selecting the person from particular job and training that person for the proper method.
- c) Scientific education and development of the workers for selection enough productivity. The combination of the best method and selection and trained workers. Taylor believed that this would cause a mental revolution on the part of management. The key to over coming workers resistance to the new methods was utilization of an lucrative system, whereby each worker was paid according to the number of units produced. It was therefore possible for workers under scientific management system to substantially increase their earnings.
d) The division of work and responsibility between management workers as an intimate cooperation between orders for the organization to function effectively, the close cooperation of managers and workers. This principle involved primarily a division of labour with manager assigned responsibility for planning and preparation of work.
The above four principles of management by Taylor resulted from this scientific analysis of tasks performed by workers in order so allow efficiency. Taylor and his followers insisted that it was possible to scientifically analyzer tasks performed by individual works in order to discover those procedures and resources. Efforts were output with minimum input of energies and resources. Efforts were concentrated on analyzing individual tasks, but attempts to rationalize labour at the level of the work of the individual worker inevitable led to changes in the entire structure of work arrangements (Scitt, 1981) he also, believed that such principles would result in increases efficiency and increased harmony form which all would benefit “scientific management can be justly and would benefit “scientific management can be justly and truthfully characterized as management in which harmony is the rule rather than discort”. Taylor ideas have been criticized for being dehumanizing, naïve and crude. This is the consistent complaint of the “behavioural” or human relations school.
In effect, the scientific management movement was concerned pharized tasks performance and the responsibility of management to plan, organize, advocacy of standardization of tools for specific tasks. Certain are better from handling certain kinds of material more efficiently. Management would know that such differences exists, then see to it that workers use the right equipment for particular tasks. Research also led to the demand for the selection and training of workers. Management and that observation and work, then train the person in the manner that observation and analysis indicated was scenically the best way accomplishing the work.
According to Taylor, workers should be viewed as extension of machines and scientific management by providing training and in manipulation pay scales, to make individual work produce more. The goal of scientific management of Taylorism was to maximize efficiency. The central theme in Taylor’s work was an obsession the inefficiency and incompetence, which he blamed on worker and managers.