INFLUENCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES ON THE PERCEPTION OF THE TEACHERS ON THE TEACHING OF HIV/AIDS EDUCATION
Health is wealth is a common saying among the people. For people to live a healthy life many precautions will have to be taken. The health condition of the people is of great concern to government and people who are involved in health care delivery. One of the health problems facing our society now is the problem of HIV/AIDS which has become epidemic. Reproductive health programmes has been given a considerate focus in the health policies. The problem of AIDS has become a global one for the United Nation Organisation (UNO) has declared December 1st of every year the World AIDS Day. This Day was first marked on 1stDecember 1998. This is an effort to raise awareness to the unending epidemic. Statistics from the 2003 edition of the AIDS epidemic by UNAIDS shows that Two million dies of AIDS related causes in 2002. Efforts are being made to find solution to this problem. HIV/AIDS has claimed the lives of 25 million people since the start of the epidemic according to greater than one organisation. The havoc HIV/AIDS has caused to human being is monumental. The situation is worse in African Nations because of the poverty level. This problem has been a source of worries to many African leaders and government as well. According to Mandela (2002) “AIDS today in Africa is claiming more lives than the sum total of all wars, famines and floods, and the ravages of such deadly diseases as malaria. It is devastating families and communities, overwhelming and depleting health care services, and robbing schools of both students and teachers”. Therefore, this study investigate how teachers of physical education perceive the teaching of HIV/AIDS Education in secondary schools as one way being advocated for solution to the HIV/AIDS epidemic through education.
1.1 Background to the Study
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which causes the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was first discovered in the early 1980s. It has spread more rapidly than most diseases in recent history, having social cultural, economical and moral repercussions on individuals, families, communities and threatening foundations of entire societies. Over the years, the link between HIV/AIDS and impoverishment has grown and even stronger as the diseases is infecting and affecting the younger generation who are the productive labour force of every economy. HIV infections are spreading quickly within the youth populations and what happens to them today will determine what becomes of them and their communities in the future. An estimated 11.8 million young people aged 15-24 are living with HIV/AIDS, and half of all new infections, over 6,000 daily, are occurring among them. (The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, UNAIDS, 2003.).
The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified HIV/AIDS as one of the world’s first health emergency and an urgent threat to global public health. It reveals that HIV/AIDS is the worlds’ second widely spread communicable disease and the sixth common cause of death globally. (WHO, 2004) In international circles in recent years, it has received as much attention as other pressing global questions like war, terrorism, environmental degradation among others. According UNAIDS (2006), about 65 millionpeople have been affected and more than 25 million people have died of AIDS related causes. The situation is made even gloomier, with 29 million new infections estimated by 2020 if prevention and treatment are not accelerated.
Physical education is the main source of physical activity for children during the school day. Parents and other adult including teachers and school board members play an important role in ensuring that children have regular access to physical education and that children get enough physical activity.
Health authorities recommend children get at lest 60 miuntes of moderate to vigorous physical activity daily whist children do not get enough sedentary living is one of the most challenging public health problems. Physical in activity is the fourth leading cause of death. And sedentary children are at risk for overweight, obesity and other chronic disease.
The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) report for 2006, states that several countries report success in reducing HIV infections. However, the overall infection rate is on the rise. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains the highest affected region. The WHO (2004) has classified HIV/AIDS as the main cause of adult mortality in Africa. It affirms that about 3.1% and 3.9% of all male and female deaths respectively are caused by ADDS related diseases. In the same vein, UNAIDS (2006) fact sheet states that 63% of the global HIV/AIDS infections are in Africa, South of the Sahara with the prevalence rate highest among the age group 15-49 years. It is for which reason African heads of states declared AIDS as a state of emergency in the continent during the African Development Forum (2000).
UNAIDS/WHO (2007) estimate the number of persons living with HIV worldwide is
33.2 million. Deaths related to HIV/AIDS declined from 2.2 million in 2005 to 2.0 million in 2007. However, the number of new infections rose to 2.5 times higher than the number of infected persons receiving treatment (UNAIDS, 2008). Rather than being complacent, this underscores the need for countries to increase their commitment to prevention efforts. This is necessary if this pandemic must start reversal in order to meet the 2015 target by the MDGs and to save humanity from an impending scourge. The WHO (2005) observes that young people in Nigeria are highly affected. Indeed, a third of Nigerians infected are 18-35 years of age. This age group constitutes all Nigerians who are in secondary school, high school, University, vocational schools, professional schools and those in active service. Mbanya, Martyn & Paul (2008) stated the socio-economic impact of the disease is profound with growing numbers of sections being affected, and high hospital bed occupancy rampant. They add that this results in overstretched medical personnel and extra burden to the health and education sectors where school teachers are reported to be unproductive on several counts and morbidity increasing from opportunistic infections. This of course, poses a major challenge to the socio-economic development of the country considering the fact that the age group below 18 makes up about 42% of the entire population (Population Reference Bureau, 2009).
Health Education is not a recent teaching in the school system. A look through the curricular development in Nigerian Education reveals the various ways in which health related issues has been treated. Attempts to introduce population and family life education into both formal and informal sector of Nigerian education could be traced back to 1980’s. By 1985, reproductive health education has been integrated into some school subjects like Biology, Integrated Science, Physical and Health Education, Home Economics, Religious and Moral Education at both the Junior Secondary School (JSS) and Senior Secondary School (SSS) levels. As a result of globalisation many things are wrong with our social life styles. One of the effects of the bad social life of our people is the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Despite the various attempt to mould the life of our people on sexual matters and moderate their behaviour through the use of condoms in preventing HIV/AIDS, not much success have been attained. Adara, (2003).
Physical & Health Education Teachers in secondary schools perceive that introducing HIV/AIDS Education in school will reduce the epidemic caused by the disease which the study intends to look at.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the years, the researcher has noticed with keen interest that there has been an increase in death of people that are associated with HIV/AIDS issues. Different people have come up with claims and counter claims about cures to HIV/AIDS. Scientific studies have proved that no cure has been found for HIV/AIDS. The dilemma which people have been thrown into due to no solution to the ravaging HIV/AIDS has led to the view of Physical and health education in secondary school that teaching HIV/AIDS Education in schools can be used to fight war against AIDS.
One school of thought believed that a separate school subject should be introduced for the purpose of addressing the problem of HIV/AIDS epidemic. Another school of thought however argue that the teaching of HIV/AIDS education will be an attempt to overload the already overloaded school subjects and over tasking the teachers.
The problem of this study is designed to investigate the influence of gender, educational qualification, teaching experience, and location of school on the perception of Physical and Health Education teachers on the teaching of HIV/AIDS Education in secondary schools.
1.3 Purpose of this Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of gender, educational qualification, teaching experience, and location of school on the perception of Physical and Health Education teachers on the teaching of HIV/AIDS Education in secondary schools and how the skills attained in schools can be used to fight the war pose by HIV/AIDS epidemic.
1.4 Research Questions
1. Will gender influence the perception of physical and health education teachers on HIV/AIDS education teaching in secondary schools?
2. Will educational qualification influence the perception of physical and health education teachers on HIV/AIDS education teaching?
3. Will teaching experience influence the perception of physical and health education teachers on HIV/AIDS education teaching?
4. Will location of school influence the perception of physical and health education teachers on HIV/AIDS education teaching?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses were tested in the research study:
1. Gender will not significantly influence the perception of Physical and health education teachers on HIV/AIDS education in schools.
2. Educational qualification will not significantly influence the perception of Physical and health education teachers on HIV/AIDS education in schools.
3. There will be no significant influence on the perception of Physical and health education on HIV/AIDS education in schools based on their teaching experience.
4. There will be no significant influence on the perception of Physical and health education on HIV/AIDS education in schools based on the location of their school.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will be of great benefit to teachers, educators, curriculum developers, authors, parents, students and the general society.
To the teachers, the findings will show their current view on HIV/AIDS education in secondary school. The study shall provide correct analysis of teaching which will help to reshape things for better. It will also provide remedial strategies in the reconstruction of school curriculum.
The findings of the study will be of great importance to curriculum designers in planning for curriculum programme in schools. It will help them to know what to include in the content of the curriculum so as to help solve the problem of HIV/AIDS epidemic.
To the educators, the finding of the will let them see the need to provide necessary in-service programme such as workshop, seminars etc. for teachers so as to increase their skills in teaching.
To the authors, the finding of the study will help to structure their books in such a way that will simplify the content of the syllabus to the students. By the results of this study, authors will organise contents of their textbooks in such a way that students will be able to cope with themes of HIV/AIDS.
The result of the study will also serve as basis for further research work in the area of using education to solve the problems of HIV/AIDS.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The problem that will be encountered by researcher will be lack of co-operation from the respondents and the inability to cover many schools due to time constrain.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
The study is delimited to the following:
1. Public Secondary Schools in Oshodi/Isolo Local Government Area, Lagos State.
2. One- hundred Physical and health education teachers in five secondary schools in Osodi/Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
3. JSS3 Students in five selected secondary schools in
4. Descriptive survey research method.
5. The use of self- structured questionnaire only as the instrument.
6. The use of two research assistants
7. Frequency counts and percentages for demographic data, while inferential statistics of chi-square for hypothesis testing at 0.05 alpha level.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined for the purpose of this study:
AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Condom: Thin rubber covering wear on penis to protect sexual disease during intercourse
Epidemic: Disease attacking many people at the same time
HIV: Human Immune Deficiency Syndrome which leads to AIDS
Perception: To view or feeling about an issue
Precaution: Something done to prevent future trouble.
Physical education: Is the main source of physical activity for children during the school
Health: is being in an optimal level of wellness of the resident in Oshodi/Isolo Academic Performance:This refers: to the level or rate at which students in school perform in their academic career. It also shows the level at which students carry out their school works at a given period of time and the result of it.
Students: This means a person who is studying at a college, polytechnic, or university;
boy or girl attending schools; anyone who studies or who is devoted to the acquisition of knowledge.
Teacher: A teacher is a person who provides education for pupils (children) and student
(Adults). The roles of teacher are often formal and on-going carried out at a school or
other place of formal education
Education can be referred to as an act or process of developing and cultivating, (whether physically, mentally, or morally) ones mental activities or senses; the expansion, strengthening, and discipline, of one’s mind, faculty, etc.; the forming and regulation of principles and character in order to prepare and fit for any calling or business by systematic instruction
Public School: These are school that are funded by government and are not based on the ability to pay privately instituted fees.
Secondary education normally takes place in secondary schools, taking place after primary education and may be followed by higher education or vocational training, some countries, only primary or basic education is compulsory, but secondary education is included in compulsory education in most countries.