INFLUENCE OF RELIGIOUS PROGRAMMES ON NTA ENUGU IN REGULATING THE MORAL CONDUCTS OF NIGERIAN STUDENTS. (A STUDY OF CARITAS UNIVERSITY STUDENTS)
This study focuses on the influence of religious programmes on NTA Enugu in regulating the moral conducts of Nigeria student, a study of Caritas University students. This is an investigative study in which 280 questionnaires were distributed and 240 were returned. A survey research method was adopted to take care of the diverse nature and student’s composition of the four faculties of the University. Analysis of data showed that religious television programmes can regulate the moral conducts of students in our society. However, problems militating against the full watching of religious programmes in our society include the fact that most programmes that are given priority on TV screen are violent programmes where evil things that can destroy the society are carried out such like rape, kidnap, how to bomb, etc are projected. The study recommends that a strong legislation should be in place to check the unwholesome content of these films, especially those detrimental to the youths. It further recommends that parents should pay attention to the programmes their young ones watch. This study points out that for us to have a peaceful society; government must give priority to religious television programmes.
1.1 Background of the Study
This study is on the influence of religious programmes on Nigerian television Authority (NTA) Enugu in regulating the moral conducts of Nigerian students using Caritas University students as a study.
Tracing the history of the establishment of the first television transmission began in Western Nigeria on October 31, 1959.This service which was initiated by a regional government was not only the first in Nigeria, but remains the oldest in the whole of the African continent. The birth could be termed purely accidental, because it was borne out of political dissension. Chief Obafemi Awolowo and his party men had walked out of parliament protest against a constitutional debate at the eve of Nigeria’s independence. This action was condemned by the ruling government over the federal all-Nigeria Radio Broad casting service, but access was denied the opposition leader to reply to the accusations. Instead of establishing a Radio station alone, to offer an unrepressed voice in national affairs, the Western Region commenced television transmission.
According to Faronbi (1979) unbelievers and critics. To many, it was a diversion of the scarce resources of the region to a prestigious project. This kind of thinking at the time was strongly countered by the argument that television was being established to satisfy the educational aspirations of the people of the Western Region. The daily times(1959) carried a page report of the inauguration of the new Western Nigerian Television service in Ibadan. According to adegbokun(1983) he holds the view that creation of state owned television stations but that another factor stronger than statism per se, was the effectiveness and importance of television broadcasting as demonstrated by the older station. He also reports that among the station that sprang up during the military regime were NTV Benin (now NTA Benin), Nigerian Television Jos, Nigerian Television Sokoto.
Furthermore, the establishment of the Nigerian Television Authority(NTA) was the first attempt by the Federal Government of Nigeria to have a centrally financed and co-ordinate television industry born out of experiment in Joint broadcasting in Nigeria, the authority played a major role in further development of the industry, in order to provide effective and and coordinate coverage of the second all-Africa games hosted by Nigeria in 1973, all the broadcasting agency in the country were pooled together to form the broadcasting organization of Nigeria (BON).One advantage to the television industry, and to the nation as a whole of the two bouts of the speedy proliferation of television stations was the rapid increase in the use of the television medium b y Nigerians. Many individuals’ establishments and homes procured television sets as a result of the oil wealth of the last two decades. Adiche (1974) reported a survey which showed that about 87 percent of the people surveyed viewed more than two hours of television programmes a day in all states.
Muniru (1984) commented on the increased choice of television channels for Nigerian viewers. He affirmed that television has spread to all areas of the country. Growth has been phenomenal. Viewers between Western States and Lagos could select from some twelve channels. Paradoxically,the availability of numerous radio and television stations in Nigeria during the 1979-1983 civilian administration should have enhanced national unity but instead it produced widespread disharmony caused by the unprecedented misuse of these two media facilities by the politicians and their agents. While inaugurating the committee for the rationalization of radio and television services, the then Chief of staff, supreme headquarters, lamented the abuse of the radio and television media by the politicians during the civilian regime. New Nigerian newspaper (1984) reported the chief of staff’s remarks: The exercise was aimed at streamlining television broadcasting in the country, saving cost and making the services more efficient. He condemned the role played by the various radio and television stations during the civilian regime. He said that the stations without exceptions became megaphones of political parties in power, suppressing or grossly distorting information to serve the whims and caprices of politicians. By so doing, Brigadier Idiagbon added, they fanned the embers of disunity, disaffection, and discord. They also succeeded in poisoning the political atmosphere to such an extent that law and order virtually broke down in many states of the federation.
The aim of this study is to find out the influence of religious programmes on NTA Enugu in regulating the moral conducts of Nigerian students. Mostly emphasis will be laid on how religious film shown on screen affect our youths and the impacts of these films, suggested measures by which the negative programme could be curtailed, presented or still avoided. This problem has caught our attention because of the concern it generated on people. Such concern is shown in justice Abdulahi article titled Television, moral training on crime booster he said that students horrible sense of high clubs which are all foreign and harmful had been conducted into the influence of television on young people, to see whether there is a relationship between TV and violence and a child’s behavior and researcher has fire to prove this line. Resources like Niclas Jonsson and activities and a leader of a group called the national citizens committee in broadcasting in America, once explained that television has become a collage for criminals.
It has been estimated that over 80% of films on television exposes the kind of criminal behaviour that are being demonstrated around us. The same thing is applicable to the Nigerian television screen or foreign and are mainly from American and Britain. But on the surface nothing seems wrong but all the actions encroaches on the minds and bears the individuals in most cases, the cultural content of most films imported into Nigeria are of little relevance to the social appearance of the average Nigeria.
It is obvious that the students of Caritas University are exposed to television programmes, from within and outside Nigerian media content. These TV programmes include religious, political, fashion etc. But our major concern is religious programme on NTA Enugu which is likely to be a favorite programme for Caritas University Students for the purpose of moral conduct upliftment. Since students hostels in the campus have TV sets mounted at convenient centers, the students from time to time watch television including NTA religious programmes.
1.2 Statement of the research Problem
The influence of religious programmes on NTA Enugu in regulating the moral conducts of Nigerian students, have been said to have some problems facing Nigerian students. The possibility that youth who view religious programmes are likely not to be aggressive and violent has been observed by educators, scientists and parents over a long time.
Nigerian students have the mindset of gaining material things more than spiritual upliftments from religious programmes. They are also faced with some kind of brain wash through some of the religious programmes like miracles, which are likely to be exaggerated. There is an erosion of moral values on the Nigerian students whereby the monetary are of more importance to them than the religious teachings.Therefore, this study is set to find out whether Caritas University exposure to NTA Enugu religious programmes has any impact on their moral conduct because of some identified factors likely to uther whatever they watch on television.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The researchers objectives is to conduct an in depth research on the influence of religious programmes on NTA Enugu in regulating the moral conducts of Nigerian students, with an insight to determine its implications on the moral values of Nigerian youths Other objectives include:
- To show how contents of religious programmes on NTA Enugu affects Nigerian students.
- To examine the TV impacts in regulating the moral conduct of Nigerian students.
- To know how to avoid erotic languages when broadcasting religious programmes on NTA.
1.4 Research Questions
A number of questions have been raised and answers to such questions definitely shall provide solutions to the problem.
- To what extent does the content of religious programmes on NTA Enugu affect Nigerian Students?
- To what extent does the TV impact moral conduct in Nigeria Students?
- How are erotic languages used when broadcasting religious programmes on NTA?
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is to find out how the religious programmes on NTA Enugu influence moral conducts of Nigerian students using Caritas University as a study. The institution is been noted for a constant influence of Religious programmes on NTA Enugu on their moral values. In the cause of the research, interviews were conducted on the students of the institution. But the research depends more on the questionnaire which were distributed to students and were completed and returned.
The researcher also consulted some textbooks, newspapers, and journals which provided a lot of information pertaining religious programmes which should be transmitted by the NTA network and the quantity, type and contents of foreign materials.
1.6 significance of the Study
First the research study is significant to the researcher as it helps her to develop research skills and facts on religious programmes in the society as it concerns the Nigerian students especially.
The conduct of this research will enable the government to know what role the media can play in the development of a country and therefore, harness the mass media especially television in the democratic process and development process in general.
The study will also help any Nigerian who goes through this work to understand effectively their various right and responsibilities in a religious society setting.
It will also confirm whether the media is for the government alone or are actually carrying out their functions to the society.
Finally, the result of the study will serve as a reference material for furthers tudies in management, government and mass communication.
1.7 Operational definitions of Terms
- religious programmes: They are evangelical educational programmes that are been broadcast on NTA with the main mission to enlighten people and uplift their morals.
- moral conducts: It relates to issues of right and wrong and how an individual should behave. It also gives guidance on how to behave decently and honorably.
- media: The media is operationalised as television. Broadcast used to generate or circulate information to the public.
- students: It is defined as people who study in various schools, universities in Nigeria without definite age range.
Anderson, D. R. (1986). Television viewing foundation. India: Anubha Printers
Adegbokun, D. (1983). Origin of Nigerian Television Authority Enugu. Nigeria: Macmillan Publishers.
Egbon, M. I. (1982). Origin and Development of Television Broadcasting in Nigeria. Lagos: Longman Press.
Faronbi, O. (1979). Fatorama: NTV Ibadan. Ibadan: NTV Publication.
Gerbner, G. (1977). Television Violence Profile. New York: Mc-Graw Hill.
Gerbner, G. (1977). Mass media Policies in Changing Cultures. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Kim, T., & Milton, S. J. (1988). Effects of Television on Youths and Children, (3rd Edition) New York: Pergamon Press.
Mc-Quail, D. (2005). Mass Communication Theory. London: Stage Publication.
Michael, J. A. (1971). Television and Children. London: Hill Top Publications.
Milton, S. (1973). Television and behavior: Research conclusions of the NIHM report and their Policy implications. London: Sterlin Holden Publisher.
Muniru, K. (1984). “25 Years of Television”. Daily Times (Lagos), Saturday, November 3.
Okpue, C. (1980). The Development of Educational Television in Bendel State, Nigeria. University College, Cardiff: Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis.
Okunna, C. S. (1999). Introduction to Mass Communication. Enugu: New Generation Books.
Schiller, T., & Morgan, M. (1969). Television and Educational Achievement. (vol.2).U.S.A: Macmillan Publishers.
Skinner, D. (1984). Mass Communication Theories. New York: Hilltop View.
Steinder, K. (1947). “Influence of Television on Attitudes and Behavior”. Journal of American Academy of political and social sciences. (vol.1) Oxford university press.
Tuchman, F., & Teffres, A. (1976). Television, Sex Roles and Children. USA: Open University Publishing Press.
Walter, L. (2007). Not in front of the children and innocence of youths. London: Rutgers University Publishing Press.