DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INTEGRATED PEST CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
This chapter presents the introduction to the design and implementation of an integrated pest control and management system. It also presents the introduction, theoretical background, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, organization of the research and definition of terms.
1.1 Theoretical Background
Since recorded history, the impact of pests on food crops has been important. Many practices of “traditional” and “modern” agriculture have evolved because of pest problems. Without doubt, pests of food crops influenced the course of civilizations-for example, the ancient Greeks and Romans knew of and used pesticides in the Mediterranean Basin. Crop losses from pests during those times were probably even more severe in the humid tropics, just as they are today. Over the 10,000 or more years that man has cultivated crops, he gradually evolved production systems that ensured an adequate food supply for the family or tribal unit from one harvest until the next. Seeds were selected from plants that survived the rigors of weather and pest infestations; cultivation, planting time, and other production practices were adopted that ensured consistent rather than high but variable yields. At best, however, such ancient practices were based on trial and error without the benefit of modern genetics, chemistry, and cultural capabilities; they were only moderately effective and resulted in relatively low and unstable production levels. Furthermore, effective means did not exist to deal with disasters such as locust plagues and blight. During the last century agriculture in industrial countries has changed from relatively small, labor-intensive, diversified family units to large, highly mechanized operations. As production became concentrated in favorable areas and as monoculture, high fertility, irrigation, and other components of modern agriculture were widely adopted, pest problems frequently became more severe. Insects, disease organisms, and nematode problems were magnified, particularly on fruits and vegetables, and weed problems became more acute as those species most suited for the new cropping systems proliferated. This situation was further exacerbated by the movement of pest species from one continent to another .
In view of the problems posed by pest, it is vital that an information should be provided to provide instant information on ways to prevent the different kinds of pest.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The following problems were identified:
Inabilities to get needed information that pertain to pest.
Manual method of keeping record of pest information makes it difficult to get timely information.
Difficulty in getting information on different measures to manage and prevent pest for different crops
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to design and implement an integrated pest control and management system. The following are the specific objectives:
To design an information system to capture and store pest management related information to database for future retrieval.
To design a system that will provide information on how to control and mange pest that affects different crops.
To design a system that will provide reports for pests that affect specific crops.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study is that it will provide an information system that will facilitate easy access to pest control and management information, it will help the ministry of agriculture to have a rich database of pest control management information. It will enable farmers to be well educated about pest control and management. The study will also serve as a useful research material to other researchers seeking similar information.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study covers design and implementation of an integrated pest control and management system, using ministry of Agriculture, Uyo as a case study. It is limited to capturing and storing pest control and management information for different crops for future report purpose.
1.6 Organization of the Research
This research work is organized into five chapters. Chapter one is concerned with the introduction of the research study and it presents the preliminaries, theoretical background, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, organization of the research and definition of terms.
Chapter two focuses on the literature review, the contributions of other scholars on the subject matter is discussed.
Chapter three is concerned with the system analysis and design. It presents the research methodology used in the development of the system, it analyzes the present system to identify the problems and provides information on the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed system. The system design is also presented in this chapter.
Chapter four presents the system implementation and documentation, the choice of programming language, analysis of modules, choice of programming language and system requirements for implementation.
Chapter five focuses on the summary, constraints of the study, conclusion and recommendations are provided in this chapter based on the study carried out.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Pest—Formerly restricted in common use to insects and certain rodents, now applies to all noxious and damaging organisms including insects. mites, nematodes, plant pathogens, weeds, and vertebrates.
Pesticides—Includes insecticides, miticides, nematicides, herbicides, fungicides,
Strategies— Pest control strategies are the general approaches or systems used to manage a pest or pests. 1PM is the strategy of using applicable multiple tactics to prevent pest losses.
Tactics—These are the specific methods used to achieve pest control. These include pesticides, pest-resistant varieties, cultural practices, biological control, and others.