AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECTS OF HAWKING AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN IN ORLU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

ABSTRACT

The study investigated the Effects of Hawking Among Primary School Age Children in Orlu Local Government Area of Imo State. Respondents included children and teachers drawn from six different schools. To carry out this research, five questions were formulated all derived from the literature review. Questionnaire was used to collect relevant data from sampled schools in Orlu Local Government Area. The responses were analyzed by the use of tables and percentages calculation. One major finding from this research project is that may primary school age children engage in hawking as part of their domestic choices. The study made it clear that hawking expose the primary school age children to danger and that parents should be aware of it as it is an abuse to the children.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE i
DECLARATION ii
APPROVAL PAGE iii
DEDICATION iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v
LIST OF FIGURE vi
ABSTRACT vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS viii

CHAPTER ONE 1
INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 4
Scope of the Study 5
Purpose of the Study 5
Significance of the Study 6
Research Questions 7
Definition of Terms 7
CHAPTER TWO 9
LITERATURE REVIEW 9
Introduction 9
The Concept of Hawking 10
Types of Hawking 13
Features of Hawking 15
The Negative Effects of Hawking on the Child 17
Solution to the Hawking Effects 18
Summary of the Literature Review 18

CHAPTER THREE 21
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 21
Introduction 21
Research Design 22
Area of Study 22
Population of the Study 23
Sample and Sampling Techniques 24
Instruments for Data Collection 26
Validation of the Instrument 26
Administration of Instrument 26
Method and Technique of Data Analysis 27

CHAPTER FOUR 28
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULT 28
Research Question One and Table 28
Research Questions Two and Table 30
Research Question Three and Table 31
Research Question Four and Table 32
Research Question Five and Table 33

CHAPTER FIVE 35
DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY OF RESULT 35
Discussion of the Findings 35
Educational Implication of the Study 41
Limitation of the Study 43
Recommendation 44
Suggestion for Further Study 45
Summary and Conclusion of the Entire Study 46
REFERENCES 48
APPENDIX 49

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Hawking is the practice of carrying goods from one place or corner of the street to another which also includes motor parks. There are many occupations in Nigerians, these includes civil services, farming trading and so on. All these occupations have their different means for reaching their customers and consumers based on their environment.

The trader who is among the largest of all the occupational groups have different ways of reaching them will help them to dispose both perishable and non-perishable goods. Some of the ways they have devised to reach their consumers are through the medias, by roads, air and rail. Most time, Hausa’s try is reach their customers by using mature animals like camels and donkey is carry their goods from one market place to another.

Due to regular sales by the traders of different categories, it becomes necessary that permanent route has to be established where the customers and consumers will conveniently go for their purchases. Some of the traders who had no permanent structures to stay like shops and shadier in the market preffered carrying their goods on the head from one point to another.

In no distant time, soon after the Nigeria Civil War, the common practice of hawking spread downward like wildfire until it reached all areas in Nigeria. A lot of people embraced it because they felt it yielded them quick money. This practice of hawking dose not only involve the adults. It also involved children of primary school age. The parent of such children allow them to hawk such commodities like orange, mangoes, Akara, groundnut and even pure water. Some kids are sent out to hawk inorder to support the family. In some cases child hawking is seen as a norm and nobody sees anything wrong in it. The parents hawked when they were kids and claimed that their own parents hawked, so it is seen as a normal business in the family.

As a researcher, this hawking which is one of the surest means of ensuring that commodities reach consumers would have been good if it has not involved children of primary school age. The involvement of primary school age children has created a lot of problems in the families and society at large. It is child abuse.

Therefore, it is with this effects that instigated the researcher to carry out a research on the topic “the effects of hawking among primary school age children” using Orlu Local Government Area as a case study.

Statement of the Problem

Since many parents have resorted to use primary school age children to hawk inorder to make quick money without recognizing the evil effects. Since it takes much of these children’s time exposing them to doubtful characters and depriving them of regular attendance to school. It reveals that it is not favourable to primary school age children.

Although, it gives the customers quick and cheap services and it makes the traders get ready cash. Above all, the hawkers familianises with many homes and people. This attraction for quick money induces the parents to involve their primary school age children. Therefore, the researcher is carrying out this study to find out the effect associated with hawking among primary school age children in Orlu Local Government Area of Imo State and to proffer solutions.

Scope of the Study

The researcher’s work is directed to study “The Effects of Hawking among Primary School Age Children in Orlu Local Government of Imo State.

Emphasis will be on the key words of identifying the problems and finally the possible solutions. Based on this assessment, conclusion will be drawn which relates to the danger associated with this menace and the way out.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this research is to findout the effects of hawking among primary age children in Orlu Local Government Area of Imo State.
Secondly, to know actually the reasons why primary school age children engage in hawking.
Thirdly, to findout whether hawking is good for the children’s moral and intellectual upbringing.
Fourthly, to know if hawking among the children can be presented.
Finally, to know if parents are aware that hawking is child abuse.

Significance of the Study

The study is significant and useful to a great extent that it will help to minimize the practice of hawking by primary school age children.

The researcher will highlight the problems facing the primary school age children in the practice of hawking. The study will help the parents to realize that it is their responsibility to care and fend for their children. It will help the children to be more serious and concentrate in their study thereby improving on their academic performance.

Research Questions

The researcher having stated the purpose of the study has put forward the following research questions:
1. Does hawking have any positive effects on children?
2. Why do primary school age children engage in hawking?
3. Is hawking good for the children’s moral and intellectual upbringing?
4. Can hawking among children be prevented?
5. Are parents aware that hawking is child abuse?

Definition of Terms

The following terms used in this should be taken to mean the following:
Hawking: To try to set things by going from one place to another asking people to buy.
Primary School: A school for children between the ages of five and eleven prior to their entering secondary school.
Parent: A person’s father or mother.
Education: A process of teaching, training and learning especially in schools or colleges to improve knowledge and develop skills.
Child Abuse: The crime of harming a child in a physicals, sexual emotional way.
Occupation: The activity which one engages himself in order to earn a living.