AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHING BUSINESS SUBJECTS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The theme of this research project is the investigation into the problems of teaching business subjects with particular reference to junior secondary schools in Orumba south local government area. In carrying out this research, four research questions were formulated. The sample of this study was all business teachers in the schools. Instrument for the study was questionnaire. The questions were grouped under the research question to which the relate. Tables and percentage were used for the data. The major findings include lack of maintenance of equipment, scarcity of material such as ribbon, typing sheet, duplicating ink, facilities like typing pool, trained teachers and poor funding contributed immensely to the problem, lastly, insufficient problems could be eliminated if the government should provide more fund for maintaining the equipment, providing facilities, material and move teachers trained to teaching business subjects.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
As a result of growing school leavers the Nigeria government introduce the new national policy on education in 1981. A major provision of this policy was the introduction of the teaching of business education subjects at the junior secondary school level with emphasis on the acquisition of practical skills, values and knowledge that would enable individuals like in the society.
One of the rational for the emphasis on business subject is the fact that is skilled subject, which would equip its graduates with the needed skills for gainful employment even if they terminate their formal education at the junior secondary school level. One basic necessity for the achievement of this would ensure that course are taught according to the curriculum and using appropriate methodologies for the subjects.
According to Nolan (1971), it is not possible to teach a student to operate a keypunch machine effectively without keypunch machine, nor is it possible to teach a student to operate a proportional spacing typewriter without such a typewriter. For a teacher to teach the business subjects he must have through knowledge of the business subject and be certified in that area, so that he can demonstrate the skills properly for the students to understand and emulate, where they stressed that the individual will acquire skills and reach the stated goals by watching an export and by practicing.
This view believed that the individual in addition to this should be given enough practice period to enable him master the art.
In order to enhance the study of the business subject Malsbery (1966), stated that there is the need for students to go on field trip for their visits permits students to study equipment and the layout of the offices and stores, to observe employee at work, routine business procedure and to study the relationship between departments.
The new national policy on education (1981), pointed out clearly that business education is an area of national need. Hence Anyaduba (1987), said “all citizen of the country need business subjects in order to function well and effectively in the society irrespective of their occupation in life.
Moreover, this stems for the fact that our country has experienced a marked growth in different business fields.
So there is the urgent need to improve the business education system in order to meet up with the new demands and requirements for the jobs. That is to say that it has become manifest that the health of any national largely depends on is human resource. The more human resource out capital and other resources into material resource that determine the nature and rate of economic and social development.
The new national policy on education in Nigeria now place emphasis on the study of vocational subjects particularly at this level comprises, the following subjects: typewriting shorthand, office practice, commerce bookkeeping and English.
Business education has always tended to educate student in a chester skill distributive education office and clerical practice provided basic skills for subjects, the students been at least minimally competent in many specific tasks, and develop the attitude of service that are required in business office.
1.2 statement of the problem.
Evidence from the recent studies shows that a large proportion of those who teach business education subjects.
In most schools are not very qualified to teach business education or teach subjects outside their area of specialization Njoku (1990).
Some teachers who teach business subjects are complaining on the problems encountered in the teaching of these subjects. In the light of these, the researcher therefore decided to find out the problem encountered by the teachers. In the teaching of business subjects in junior secondary schools.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study is aimed at achieving the following objectives:
- To find out the extent to which the teaching of business subjects is being funded.
- To determines which facilities are adequately provided for teaching of business subjects.
- To find out the extent to which adequate and qualified teachers are available for teaching business subjects.
- To find out whether the time allotted for the teaching of business subjects and the method used are adequate and effective respectively.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- To what extent is the teaching of business subjects adequately funded?
- to what extent are teaching facilities provided for teaching business subjects.
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
1) HO: does an investigation into the problem of teaching business subject in junior secondary school contributed to the problem of teaching business subject in secondary school?
HI: the investigation into the problem of teaching business subject in junior secondary school has contributed a lot.
2) HO: Does government individual played any important role towards, investigation into the problem of teaching business subject in junior secondary school?
HI: government or individual has contributed a lot to the investigation into the the problem of teaching business subjects in junior secondary school.
1.6 significance of study.
It requires little thinking discovering that this research will be of immense benefit to Anambra state ministry of education. It will enable them to become aware of the problem that exist in Orumba north & south local government area. With a view to improve situation.
The findings in the study will also contribute in this little way to the feedback which the federal government will received on the implementation of her National policy on Education and this feedback will help the government to decide when and where modification are necessary in the new national educational policy.
Parent and guardian will discover from the findings of this research parent the problem encountered by their children in the learning of business subject and will therefore, take steps through their parents/teachers association of Orumba north & south local government area will probably be the first to appreciate the contribution of this research.
It can be seen that research findings will be of great significant to a variety of people.
1.7 scope of the study
This research work, covers of the junior secondary schools in Orumba north/south local government area.
1.8 Definition of terms
TEACHING: is the act of impacting knowledge into human beings, either orally or practical, according to google teaching is idea or principle taught by an authority.
BUSINESS: As we know it involves two or more people coming together to exchange good & service for money. According to internet business also known as an enterprise or a firm, is an organization involved in the provision of goods & services o both to consumers.
BUSINESS STUDIES: this study of business is about how individual and group of people organize, plan and act to create and develop goods & service to satisfy customers.
2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
There are many militating against the teaching of business subjects in junior secondary schools.
In reviewing the literature for this work, the researcher discovered that there are problem of death resource materials. They however managed to do with the one they could lay hands on and those includes magazines, journals, textbooks on business education and other vocational education subjects.
In order to show effective review of the literature, the information gathered from the above sources were grouped under the following headings:
- The brief account of the origin of business education.
- The aims/needs for business education.
- Methods of teaching business education subjects.
- Human and non-human resources in teaching business education.
2.1 THE BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN OF BUSINESS EDUCATION
Business education has been with us, in the pre-literature society up to the modern time, people have used that business situation and transactions. They have always engaged themselves in production, exchange, storing, transporting and so forth. However, no one can clearly and definitely state when the formal type of business education stated in Nigeria.
Trace of the formal type of business education were found in the last two decades of the 19th century when some Nigerian national in business partnership, with overseas exports had to learn simple commercial arithmetic, some book-keeping business communication and some typing to facilitate business communication and some typing to facilitate business transaction.
Awokoye (1979), it was excepted that the children of these early businessmen were sent to schools to learn simple production involving record-keeping entrepreneur pioneered business education in order to meet the need of their export market.
Government and early missionary bodies contributed immensely to the evolution of business education. From among the clerical cadre the government trained that and the missions emerged those who later learnt business arithmetic and simple book-keeping.
Some of these clerks were known to have opened business day and evening schools. Usually, the proprietors employed untrained and poorly qualified teachers to teach those students who came to the institution especially to learning typewriting, shorthand and book-keeping. Apart from private business schools, it is on record that St. Andrew’s college Oyo found in 1859, taught among other things, simple account to teachers trainees some of whom later on their own learnt typewriting and shorthand during holidays.
Between 1940 and 1960, the missions, particularly the woman catholic church established schools from the training girls as secretaries.
In 1955, the secondary modern schools were introduce to give vocational business training one reads of a few teaching commercial secondary schools like abbot institute, sapele, zikks college, sapele, essi college warri, college, ile ife, Niger college, Apapa to mention just a few. Yaba, Christian secondary college of technology (founder 1932) was the only post secondary institution then offering business education courses.
Nigeria witnessed a phenomenal growth in the number of institution teaching business education courses during the last three decides. At the university level, the university of Nigeria Nsukka (1960) blazed the trail followed by the university of lagos (1962), Ahumad Bello university, Zaria (1962), University of Ife (now obafemi Awolowo University) and the university of Benin (which introduced business education courses in 1975).
At the lower post-secondary level, we have seen a great number of college of technology and polytechnics offering education course. At the secondary school level, Uninfun (1978).
With then advent of the national policy on education, which started in 1982, all junior and senior secondary schools in Nigeria should and ought to teach business education courses.
2.2 THE AIMS/NEEDS OF BUSINESS EDUCATION
The goal of business education is production of manpower who posses the requisite knowledge, skill and attitude for harnessing other resources and bringing them into a co-operative relationship, yielding the goods and services demanded by society for the satisfaction of their wants and needs.
It will also be appropriate to endorse in this country the mission of business education as out timed by the national business education association in America which hostler (1985) stated as;
- To educate individuals for and about business.
2. To provide a continuous programme of planned learning experiences designed to equip individuals to fulfil effectively their roles as workers, consumers and citizens.
3.To provide career information that helps students to occupational opportunities in business, aim of business education at the junior secondary school level.
According to the national curriculum for junior secondary school (1983) as follows.
- To enable students to acquire the basic knowledge of the students.
- To provide students for further training in business studies.
- To provide students with the orientation and basic skills with which to start a life of work for those who may not under go further training.
- To develop in the students, the basic skills in office occupation.
- To equip the student with the ability to relate the knowledge and skills to the national economy.
At the post primary level, the curriculum should aim at the training the child for some specific skill education for its own sale is a glorious idea in countries when free secondary, technical and university education are attainable to all students who are intellectually able to cope with and profit by such opportunities under the 6.334 system of education, a child is expected to be about 15years at the end of the junior secondary, at a time which he would be expected to make his own career choice after guidance and consoling. The 3years of senior secondary education should be devoted to adequate quality as quantity of business education teachers should be produced at advanced teachers colleges/college of education and specialized business courses should be introduced at the polytechnics and university levels.
All students in the universities and polytechnic should be made to study entrepreneurship in order to enable them to be self-reliant and self employed on graduation.
2.3 METHOD OF TEACHING BUSINESS STUDIES
One of the greatest deficiencies in the teaching of business subjects is the non-use of appropriate and approved methodologies. This means that even where trained business education exits, they do not use the right methodologies. It is either that the teachers are unaware of these methods or are indifferent to their use.
Teaching methods are as diverse are there are teachers. Whatever the method is, the objective is always the same. It is however; true that what while one method might pore highly useful in one situation, it may fail fully in another is an important factor in determining the teaching method.
There could be certain occasions when it may not be convenient for the students to participate actively, and it cause some sort of lecturing by way of exposition might be useful.
- Expository Technique: this is a method that enables the teacher to do all the talking in order to expose his knowledge of the subject matter to the learners with little or no attempt made to elicit information from the students. Following technique could period effective ways of handling basic business in the secondary schools.
- Problem Solving Techniques: daughter (1974) maintains that the whole class, by smaller groups, or by individual class members, can use the problem-solving technique. The question though is, how does the teacher who believe in the problem solving approach handle the matter in the class? To set the ball rolling, the teacher could, on a unit concerning bank reconciliation, the statement, for example pose the following problem situation, your father’s cheque books shows a balance of #650. Who is correct? Your father or the bank?. A good discussion is sure to follow, problem solving technique can also serve as vehicle for effective summarization at the end of the lesson for instance at the end of the lesson on the purpose served by banks, one brief question could be “what would happen if all the bank in Nigeria were shut down”? Student would definitely point out in summary from the distinct values to bank, to a Nation.
- GROUP DISCUSSION TECHNIQUE: Group discussion in business can be very effective learning strategy because it gives the student opportunities to express themselves, exchange ideas and weigh alternative course of action.
These are number of tips that can guide the teacher.
- Encourage the student to do the talking: an effective teacher should have a refined way of encouraging the students to get actively involved in speaking. The teacher has to be careful to ensure the students who are shy, retrieving and having a tendency to withdraw are encouraged to participate. It is necessary to draw them tactfully into the discussion, not only for the contribution, they may have to offer to the group, but also for the development of self-esteem.
- Get all points of view presented: the teacher who has perfected his conduct of discussion is quick to notice, by their facial expression, student with points of view that differs from those presented. Such students should be drawn into the group discussion.
- Be a cyanide, not the main actor: the temptation is great on the point of the teachers but efforts should be made to merely guide and not because the main actor to fully pray would deprive the students of getting group participation and thus deny them the achievement of maximum benefits.
- Field Trip Technique: Many subjects in the basic business cluster can effectively be better taught by taking the students out on field trip. In most cases, what the textbook and the teacher describe in as many words will make much more sense to the students if they see this process in operation physically in the industry. For instance, the concept of mass production becomes better appreciated if a field trip to Nigerian breweries limited or any other manufacturing company is organized for the students. The word processor and it’s operation can best be learned by talking the students out to business houses utilizing such equipments, if the schools are not equipped with such machines.
SATION (1962) suggested that organizing the students into committers to handle many details of the planning. One committee can arrange for getting the school’s permission for the trip another committee can arrange with the business houses to be visited and the time.
Depending on the size of the class, it may be necessary for the teachers to get help from friends, student’s teachers or other teachers on the day of the trip.
1.4 HUMAN/NON-HUMAN RESOURCE IN THE TEACHING BUSINESS SUBJECTS
There is the need for well-trained teachers to be in the field of business education because without qualified teachers the objectives of business education will not be achieved.
There is a notion that teacher occupy a prominent position in the educational system, more so, prominent is the business education NOLAN (1967), argued that no curriculum, textbooks, or equipment, however can give good compensate to a poor teacher. In supporting his ideas proper and Quigloy (1965), said that only the individual with sufficient practical training mastery in the skill is competent to instruct and train. FAFUNWA (1967), was of the opinion that the caliber of country’s teachers often influence the quality of other profession. In clarifying his point, he Said that poor teachers would produce poorly prepared doctors and other professional while the good teachers are bound to produce their own kind.
According to igwe (1982), the quality of education in any school system can never be higher than the quality of teachers who operates it, he recommended that the country has to plan for the supply of the required number of qualified teachers. This is said could be adored by increasing the annual enrolment of students into the existing advance teachers college of education, college of technology and polytechnic, department of education for training of technical teachers.
Tonne and Maness (1970), suggested that apart from the first degree, business teachers must have adequate job experiences before they will start teaching, moreover, nonchalant resources in the teaching of business subject includes material used.
In view of this Amaefula (1979), writing on business programme in secondary schools emphasized that, other factors which might influence the construction for a balanced programme for the business section of a secondary school include availability of suitable qualified manpower, adequate and right type of equipment and the existence of conducive environment.
He also added that the business programme would not flourish well in an environment that does not appreciate its value. He further maintained that where the administration is either ignorant about the field if nonchalant about its progress, or in a school bedevilled by baseless academic and interpersonal discrimination at both the business students and business teachers will lose a sense of belonging.
Amaefula (1979) also suggested that such curriculum programme as co-operative education can operate. This capstone process works out a joint programme of an the job training out among the business enterprise, the school and parents.
Russon and Wanous (1978), in support of recommendation listed under modern devices of imparting courses. One of such devices was through television. To butters this point, he gave an example of how students who received instruction wrote significantly fast on a timed writing text than did. A method group of students who did conventional instruction, still writing on the need for equipment, Alien and Wannous.
Further said opaque project could be used to project papers containing errors common to the majority of students in a class. Thus the teachers can project a typical paper on the screen, point out their errors, and discuss the problems with class as a whole.
Business education subjects in its nature are more of practical work than theory so it needs equipment or instructional material to make more effective.
There is the need of using these listed equipment or instructional materials, film strips, video tapes, slides, typing machine, tape recorders, computer terminals in class when the leaving is going on to make students comprehend what is being taught to them.
It was apparent that business students must be prepared in the thinking habit as well as the operation of machine, if they are given recognition, the Nigeria research council (1980), has this to say to get the maximum benefit in class, it is logical that if a class of thirty students enrolled for typing, should be at least thirty-five typewriter in the pool with thirty-five chairs.
Furthermore, Okejabi (1972), said that no school can vain to be good without a good library good textbooks, well equipped laboratories or other instructional materials that in the past received little attention.
His own contribution is right because business studies required some set of equipment and instructional materials for practical skill supporting the use of teaching machines a motivator in the becoming of skills subjects, canning (1976) stated that, inters varies greatly in its origin, it’s nature and it’s intensity. When we are being entertained or ensued by some witty or dramatic programme on television, or when we are transported by some wonderful price of music, we are intersected in often to the level where our concentration is total; the rest of the external world may cease to exist for a while.
He further maintained that interest can often be self-creating in that once a student becomes involved in the skill-learning process and is given the right instruction and the right encouragement, interest remains high and the motivating derive to success is maintained this is especially true of shorthand, which for student may well become not only very interesting but also often obsessive.
Writing also on equipment for learning business subject, Lesile (1953), stressed that, an instructional film carefully selected, well time and skilfully presented is a profitable aid to instruction in nearly all classes.
Emphasizing more on the effective we of learning facilities in order to promote or facilitate learning Curtis (1969), maintained regardless of how well the vocational education curriculum is prepared and how excellent the qualification of the teacher, it is necessary to have adequate equipment for will balanced programme.
Summary of related literature
Based on the discussion on the review of related literature, the existence of business subjects junior secondary schools is justified by the need for it.
Business education has been with us perhaps since the birth of man, at last in the informal sense. In the pre-literate society up to the modern time, people have always engaged themselves in production, exchange, storing transporting and so forth.
Trace of the formal type of business education were found in the last two decades of the 19th century when some Nigerian simple commercial arithmetic, some typing to facilitate business communication and some typing to facilitate transaction Awokoya (1979) now with the advent of national policy on education, which started in 1982, all junior and senior secondary schools in Nigeria should and ought to teach business education subject.
Business education aimed at turning out the right caliber of work force with business and entrepreneurial ability for position in various sectors of the economy.
To achieve this good same certain methods as expository technique for the teacher to expose his knowledge of the subject matter with little or no attempt made to elicit information from the student.
Another technique is problem solving technique. A teacher can throw a brief question so as to arrive at an effective summarization at the end of the lesson.
Another technique is group decision technique, this gives the students opportunity to express themselves, exchange ideas, and weigh alternative course of action.
Another technique is to encourage the student’s to be actively involved in speaking, he should be careful to ensure those students who are shy, retiming and have a tendency to withdraw and encouraged to participate. It is equally to drawn them tactfully into discussion, not only for the contribution they may have to offer to the group, but also for the development of their self esteems.
Another technique is field trip technique in most cases, what the textbooks and the teacher can describe in as many words will make more sense to student, if they see process in operation physically in the industry.
SATION (1962) suggested organizing the students into committees to handle many of the details of planning. One committee can arrange to getting the schools permission house to be visited and time the teachers many get help from friends, teachers to another teachers on the day of the trip.
Finally human and non-human resources should be involved in teaching business subjects. In this sense, there is need for well-trained teachers to be in the field of business education because without qualified teachers the objective of business education will be achieved the quantity of the teachers will determine the equality of student they are going to produce.
A teacher cannot give what this does not have poor teacher produce poorly doctors and other professionals while the good teachers are bound to produce their own kid.
According to Igwe (1982) the quality of education in any school system can never be higher them the quality of teachers who operates it.
He further recommended that government have to plan for the supply of required number of qualified teachers this could be achieved by increasing the annul enrolment of student into the existing advance teachers, colleges of education, college of technology and polytechnics, department of education for training of technical teacher, Tone and Maness (1970) also suggested that apart from the degree, business teachers must have adequate job experience before they will start teaching.
Moreover, nonchalant resources in the teaching of business subjects includes material used. Russon and Wanous (1978) in support of one such device was through television.
A student who received telecast instruction write faster on timed writing test than did a matched group of students who did conventional instruction a projector can be used because the teacher an project a typical paper on the screen, point the arrows, discuss the problem with the class as a whole film strips, video tapes, slide, typing machine, tape recorders, computer terminals in the class when the lecture is going on to make students comprehend what is being taught to them.
A good library, good text-ebooks because no school can claim to be good without a good equipped library.
Well- equipped laboratories or other instructional materials that in the past received little attention.