INVESTIGATION OF THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF UYO PERMANENT SITE

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Topography can be defined as the shape or configuration or relief or roughness or three-dimensional quality of the earth surface the object of topographical surveying is to produce a map showing elevations, natural and artificial feature and forms of the earth’s surface. It is drawn from field survey data or aerial photography’s.

Topography is a field of geosciences and planetary science comprising the study of surface shape and features of the earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons and asteroids, it is also the description of such surface shapes and features (especially their depiction in maps).the topography of an area could also mean the surface shape and features themselves In general, topography is concerned with local details in general, including not only relief but also natural and artificial features and even local history and culture. The term topography originated in ancient Greece and continued in ancient Rome, as the detailed description of a place the word comes from the Greek words to one (Topos “place”) in the 20th century the term topography started to be used to describe surface description in other fields where mapping in a broader sense is used, particularly in medical fields such as neurology.

The objective of topography is to determine the position of any features or more generally any point in terms of both a horizontal coordinates system such as latitude, longitude, and altitude. Identifying (naming) features, and recognizing typical landforms patterns are also part of the field. A topography study may be made for variety of reasons military planning and geological exploration have been primary motivators to start survey programs, but detailed information about terrain and surface features is essential for the planning and construction of any major civil engineering, public works, or reclamation projects.

Though aerial or photogrammetric methods are extensively used in preparing topographic, maps, grand methods and still required for checking aerial photogrammetric and also for plotting details. For any engineering project topographic survey is a must. Whether it is laying a railroad or high way or design of irrigation or drainage systems, the topographical features of the place must be known so that correct engineering decisions may be taken.

Instruments required include transit plane table and alidade, level, hand level, tape, leveling staff and level in various combination. Total station EDM’s are used to advantage in topographic surveying.

Topographical surveys, most of the measurements are done with high quality GPs unit or with a electronic EDM instruments that measure distance with the usage of light and radio wares. The result of survey are presented in the form of comber lines on maps of the land, antlike in other types of surveys there the result are marked using stakes or other landmarks.

1.1 AIMS OF THE PROJECT

The aim of the project is to carry out a topographical survey of the project area and the production of a topographical plan showing natural and artificial features and elevation of the area which will glide or serve as a valuable instrument for planning any engineering project on the project area.

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

To produce a topographic map of the project area.
To produce a spot height map of the project area.
To produce a contour map of the project area.

1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

The scope of the project includes:

Reconnaissance survey.
Station establishment documentation.
Perimeter traversing.
Traverse connection to established controls.
Spot heighting
Intersection most outside the university Campos.
Detailing of features within around projectors a using tachometry and chain survey.
Displacement of boundary pillars and re-establishment.
Perimeter leveling.
Filed sheet reduction.
Computation of bearing, coordinate and elevations of points and pillars.
Plotting of topographic map, spot height map and contour map of the project area.

1.4 AREA OF STUDY

The project was carried out of permanent site university of Uyo, Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria.