AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF UDARA LEAF

ABSTRACT

Chrysophyllum albidum G in a tropical plant and commonly found in Nigeria A leaf extract of Chrysophyllum albidum G. were tested using the agar diffusion method on three bacteria strains staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Coliform bacteria phytochemical screening shows that the chrysophyllum albidum G leaf extract contains sapon and no Alkaloid. The chrysophyllum albedum G extract was effective against the text bacteria. The inhibitional zone observed ranged from 1cm to 9cm: the animals in the treatment category were respectively with 500, 1000 and 1500mg of extract and distilled water for.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Certification page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction- – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Origin of chrysophyllum albidum- – – – 1-2
1.2 Taxonomy- – – – – – – – 3
1.3 Bronchitis- – – – – – – – 3
1.4 Alzheimer’s or arthristic- – – – – – 3
1.5 Botanical description of udara growth habit- – 4-5
1.6 Folige- – – – – – – – – 5-6
1.7 Literature review- – – – – – – 6-12
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Materials and method- – – – – – 13-14
2.1 Sample collection (plant material)- – – – 14
2.2 Extraction method- – – – – – – 14
2.3 Phytochemical components test for saponin- – 15
2.4 Alkaloid test- – – – – – – – 16
2.5 Innoculation of the medium – – – – – 16
2.6 Innoculation of the medium in the U.V chamber- -16
2.7 Sources of test organisms- – – – – 17
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Result- – – – – – – – – 18
3.1 Antimicrobial activities test result- – – 19-23
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results and discussion- – – – – 23-24
4.1 Discussion- – – – – – – 24-25
4.2 Conclusion- – – – – – – – 25
References- – – – – – – – 26-28
Appendix- – – – – – – – 29-30

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

The search for healing power from plants in as old as man people in all continents of the world have long applied poultices and imbibed infusions of hundreds (if not thousands) of indigenous plants dating back to prehistorically period (Duke and Wain 1981: Nostro et al, 2000). Till date, natural plant of various hyper are used in traditional African medicine for providing healing to various ailments even before and after the spread of modern and scientific basis the practice of Africa traditional medicine. Hence some active components of medicinal plants often used which producer certain antimicrobial properties have been identified among there plants in chrysopyllum albidum G.

1.1    ORIGIN OF CHRYSOPHYLLUM ALBIDUM

Though the exact area of origin in unknown, the while star apple in believed native to tropical America, per harps in southern Mexico and neighboring Central America.

Chrysophyllum albidum in commonly called Udara or white star apple and it is native to tropical countries. The negative part of white star apple plant have enormous medicinal using in various parts of Africa. The cotyledons in form the seed of C albidum are use in the treatment. Of vaginal and dermatological infections in Western Nigeria. The fruit pulp in rich in vitamin C and iron and an excellent source of raw material for industries (Adisa, 2000, Akubugwo 2007). Tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, proteins, carbohydater and resins are the phytochemicals that have been reported in C albidum (Akeneme 2008). Bioassay guided fractionation of the seeds of C albidum led to the isolotaion of eleagnine was found to be the main compound responsible for its antimicrobial activity (Idown et al, 2003)

Because of these, information on the safety potential of this plant in lacking, thus. There will be need to evaluate the toxicity potential of this popularly used medicinal plant. The study therefore in aimed at providing information on the effects of the ethanolic leaf extract on biochemical and haematological parameters in albino wistar rats.

1.2    TAXONOMY

Family: Sapotaceac

Accepted name: Chrysophyllum albidum

G.: Don.

Synonyms: Gambeya albide

Pellegr.: Planchonella albide

COMMON NAMES

White star apple

African star apple

1.3    BRONCHITIS

The leaf of C. albidum is a good remedy for respiratory problem especially helping to thin the blood (anti-platelet effect) as well as regulate the sugar level in blood sugar.

1.4    ALZHEIMER’S OR ARTHRISTIC

  1. albidum is effective for the cure of Alzheimer’s or arthritis, prepare as for bronchitis the dosage in half a glass twice daily

1.5    BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION OF UDARA GROWTH HABIT

It is a medium sized decidous tree growing to 15-20 feet mt all, with a trunk up to 60cm diameter, and a crown with many slender branches the bark trunk of mature trees in thick, dark red-brown and deeply furrowed. The branching is sympodial. The shoots are bright yellow green at first with mucilaginous bark, turning reddish brown and in two or three years being to show shallow tissues. The leaves are alternate, green to yellow-green, ovate or obovate, 10-16cm long and 5- 10cm broad with a short, slender, slightly grooved petiole. The come in three different shapes all of which can be on the saw branch, three lobed leaves, rarely there can be more than three lobe. In fall, they turn to shads of yellow, tinged with red the flowers are produced in loose, dropping few floweredrucemer appear; they are yellow to greenish yellow with five or six tepals. The fruit in a dark blue black drupes cm long. Containing a single seed borne on a red fleshy club-shaped pedical 2cm long. It is ripe in late summer with the seeds dispersed by birds. The cotyledons thick and fleshy. All parts of the plant are aromatic and spicy. The roots are thick and frequently produce root sprouts which can develop into new trees. 

USEFUL

It has a demonstrated usefulness as a liver protector, pain reliever in the control of high blood pressure and as a good contraceptive and infections.

1.6    FOLIAGE

The dark green obovate dropping leaver grow up to 5 inches long, giving the Udara an interesting tropical appearance. The leaves turn yellow and begin to fall in mid autumn and leaf out again in-late spring after the tree has bloomed

FLOWERS

Dormant, velvety, dark brow flowers buds develop in the axits of the previous years. The produce maroon, upside down flowers up to 2 inches across. The normal bloom period consists of about 6 weeks during March to May depending on variety latitude and ultimate conditions. The blossom consists soft 2 whorls of 3 petals each and the calye has 3 sepals each flower contains several ovaries which explain why a single flower can produce multiple fruits.

FRUIT

The Udara edible fruit nutine in America. Individual fruit weight 1 to 1 hours and 2 to 3 inches in length. The larger size will appear plain similar to the mango; the fruit usually has 3 to 4 seed inside. The are brownish in color and shaped like beans, with a length of 1 to 2 inches

Udara fruits often occur as clusters of up to nine individual fruits. The ripe fruit is soft and then skinned leaves dislike strong winds overall the tree in an excellent edible landscape addition.

REFERENCES

Adebayo A.H, Abolaji AO, Opata TK and Adegbemi IK (2010). Effects of ethanolic leaf extract of commiphora Africana (Burseraccae) on lipd file in rats int. J. Pharmacol, 2:618-622.

Adebayo A.H, Liya R, Gatising D and Garba IH (2006). The effects of ethanolic leaf extract of chrysophyllum albidum G. on biochemical and haematological parameter of albino wistar rats. Africa J. Biotechnology 9:2145-2180.

Akaneme F.L (2008). Identification and preliminary phytochemical analysis of herbs that can arrest threatened miscarriage in Orba and Nsukka Towns of Enugu State Africa J. Biotechnology 7:6-11

Akubugwo IE and Ugbogu AE (2007) physicochemical studies on oils from five selected Nigerian plant seeds Pak. J. Nutrient, :675-78