A Comparative Study of the Implications of Ethnicity on CAMPFIRE in Bulilimamangwe and Binga Districts of Zimbabwe

The Communal Area Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (Campfire) is a natural resources management project funded by USAID as part of a regional initiative in wildlife conservation. Campfire seeks to involve local people, in return for benefits, in the management of their local wildlife resources. Based on data collected between 1991 and 1994 in two districts of Zimbabwe, Bulilimamangwe and Binga, the authors argue that contrary to what Campfire practitioners believe, rural communities are not homogeneous groups. Campfire’s failure to acknowledge that access to and use of natural resources are related to ethnicity reinforces existing inequalities. As the situation stands in Bulilimamangwe, Campfire has taken an incremental approach to rural development. The San continue to depend on the Kalanga and Ndebele for their survival. Campfire’s attempts at range improvement benefit those groups which own cattle, thereby excluding the San. On the other hand, ethnic groups which are not targets of Campfire devise other options of land use which might conflict with Campfire’s objectives. This is the case in Binga where the Shona and Ndebele people have renewed their practice of agropastoralism. Agropastoralism has typically involved taking land away from Campfire. Its viability has led the Tonga – the target of Campfire – not only to question Campfire but in some cases to abandon it in favour of agropastoralism. Notes, ref., sum.

Title: A Comparative Study of the Implications of Ethnicity on CAMPFIRE in Bulilimamangwe and Binga Districts of Zimbabwe
Authors: Madzudzo, Elias
Dzingirai, V.
Year: 1995
Periodical: Zambezia (ISSN 0379-0622)
Volume: 22
Issue: 1
Pages: 25-41
Language: English
Notes: maps
Geographic terms: Zimbabwe
Southern Africa
Abbreviation: CAMPFIRE=Communal Areas Management Programme For Indigenous Resources
External link: http://digital.lib.msu.edu/projects/africanjournals/html/itemdetail.cfm?recordID=1270
Abstract: The Communal Area Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (Campfire) is a natural resources management project funded by USAID as part of a regional initiative in wildlife conservation. Campfire seeks to involve local people, in return for benefits, in the management of their local wildlife resources. Based on data collected between 1991 and 1994 in two districts of Zimbabwe, Bulilimamangwe and Binga, the authors argue that contrary to what Campfire practitioners believe, rural communities are not homogeneous groups. Campfire’s failure to acknowledge that access to and use of natural resources are related to ethnicity reinforces existing inequalities. As the situation stands in Bulilimamangwe, Campfire has taken an incremental approach to rural development. The San continue to depend on the Kalanga and Ndebele for their survival. Campfire’s attempts at range improvement benefit those groups which own cattle, thereby excluding the San. On the other hand, ethnic groups which are not targets of Campfire devise other options of land use which might conflict with Campfire’s objectives. This is the case in Binga where the Shona and Ndebele people have renewed their practice of agropastoralism. Agropastoralism has typically involved taking land away from Campfire. Its viability has led the Tonga – the target of Campfire – not only to question Campfire but in some cases to abandon it in favour of agropastoralism. Notes, ref., sum.