LOAN SYNDICATION IN BANKS
(A CASE STUDY OF INTERNATIONAL MERCHANT BANK. IMB
1.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Loan syndication is an inter-bank relationship and facilities in carrying on a common interest in financing a project. Where client borrowing requirement are extremely large and the risk also very light that it exceed the capacity of one banks, as it is often the case with major industrial, commercial, or agricultural undertakings. One bank arranges in close association with the customer syndicate facilities by grouping a consortium of banks to meet such financing request. The organizing bank is called the lead or managing bank, the loan is called consortium loan while the participating banks are referred to as loan syndication and the process of providing the loan is known as loan syndication.
Corporate loan syndication group (CLSG) purchases and sells interest in loan, in the corporate and commercial real estate sector corporate sector loan syndication includes;
– Leverage financing
– Middle market manufacturing
– Commercial financing companied
– Cable and communication companies. Syndication in the real estate sector includes;
– Pooled property funds
– Construction and development
A common feature of the International Merchant Bank management of loan syndication is a classical management of its asset. Loan syndication management is the act of handling a pool of inter bank relationship and their fund so that if not only preserved its original worth but also over time appreciate in value and yields and adequate return, consistent with the level of risk involved.
It is therefore our aim in this researcher to investigate syndication management strategy in international merchant bank and to see whether it is any way influenced by the nature of loans and advances of the bank whether its influenced of a positive or negative nature. According to Ansoff (1965).
Traditionally, the measure of success in a business firm has been profit, it is this measure that distinguished a business organization or from all other forms of social organization.
The factors that are likely to influence a bank’s desire to invest in a particular investment outlet include the nature of the project, the profitability, the cash flow situation and the maturity pattern of the banks. The importance of these various factors in the determination syndication varies from one bank to the other depending on the nature of the management and the overall business environment.
International merchant bank operates in the setting described with the cope of the direction of the bank Act. In this Act, banking business is defined as: the business of receiving money from outsider as deposit, irrespective of the payment of interest and the granting of loans. Advances and acceptances of credit or purchase and sale of securities and in incurring of obligation to acquire claims in respect of loans prior to their maturity or assumption of guarantee and other warrantees for others or the effecting transfers and clearing such other transaction as the minister may, on the recommendation of the central bank order published in the federal government gazette designated as banking business. It is easily seen that loan syndication management appropriately falls within the area of banking business as defined.
The function, objective, operation and setting of the merchant banks differs from those of commercial banks. In this Act of 1968, it is provided that merchant banks could engage in all forms of banking activities those undertaken by commercial bank except the operation of current account for small saves. The merchant banks are licensed to assist in the channeling of liquidity into the economy through granting of medium and long term investment, and also to perform specialized services in the area of equipment leasing, corporate financing project preparation debt factoring and rendering of advisory services among others. The provision on universal banking. For international merchant bank, it was considered that since they normally deal with large customers, which operate expectedly higher level of efficiency. They also need to mange their syndication more professionally to maximize the returns.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Contributing to the literature on the problem of loan syndication management, the study was designed to analyze how international merchant bank select securities in its loan syndication and how these loan are managed until their various dates of maturity. The question the researcher is seeking answers are
a. What are the objectives of loan syndication?
b. What are the problems encountered in the efficient management of loan syndication?
c. What is the effect of loan syndication management on the operation of international merchant bank?
d. How can loan managers select an efficient syndicate?
e. Assessment of the overall performance of the loan syndication department in the bank
f. What is the role of government directives in bank syndication?
PURPOSE OF STUDY
Considering the paramount need for an efficient task of loan syndication management, this research is to examine the management of loan syndication in international merchant bank. This study is being undertaken to achieve the following;
a. To examine the pattern and lending practice of international merchant bank, and attempt to suggest measures to alleviate problems that will be identified.
b. To find out how central bank’s guidelines affects loan syndication management in international merchant bank.
c. To find out the efficiency of loan syndication management in international merchant.
For the research to effectively attain the purpose of this research work, the following question helped the purposed
a. What are the lending practices of international merchant bank?
b. What are the credit guidelines of loan syndication management in international merchant bank?
c. Is there efficiency in there loan syndication management in international merchant bank?
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH
The findings of the study will highlight the importance of loan syndication management to syndication managers. It will provide information to all merchant banks and other companies that deal with lending practices.
Besides, this study will render a great deal of help to institution of higher learning and those who intend to undertake further research in this area. Finally, the study will add to the steadily growing volume of life rafure in the area. I also attempted to give an insight into the problems which international merchant encounter in the execution of their lending practices and examines the extent to which they are coping with their syndication management practices.
THE SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH
The scope of the research is limited to international merchant bank (IMB) in Port Harcourt and was aimed at carrying out analysis of loan syndication practices of the bank.