LOCAL GOVERNANCE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
The main aim of the research work is to find out the relationship between good governance and rural development, the research work made use of primary data obtained from the research questionnaires distributed among 200 respondents in Egbeda local government area of Oyo state, the chi-square and the pearson correlation were used for the purpose of analysis. The result of the analysis shows that there is a significant relationship between good governance and rural development. The research work found out that poor infrastructure have significant effect on the development of Egbeda local government area of Oyo State and proper recommendations were made to assist the state and the federal government in the development of Egbeda local government area of Oyo state.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Every state in Nigeria has more than one local government areas though they operate on another type of government but still under the management of the state government. Local governance includes the diverse objectives of vibrant, living, working, and environmentally preserved self-governing communities. Good local governance is not just about providing a range of local services but also about preserving the life and liberty of residents, creating space for democratic participation and civic dialogue, supporting market-led and environmentally sustainable local development, and facilitating outcomes that enrich the quality of life of residents. Although the concept of local governance is as old as the history of humanity, only recently has it entered the broad discourse in the academic and practice literature. Globalization and the information revolution are forcing a reexamination of citizen-state relations and roles and the relationships of various orders of government with entities beyond government and thereby an enhanced focus on local governance. The concept, however, has yet to be embraced fully by the literature on development economics, because of the longstanding tradition in the development assistance community of focusing on either local governments or community organizations while neglecting the overall institutional environment that facilitates or retards interconnectivity, cooperation, or competition among organizations, groups, norms, and networks that serve public interest at the local level. Several writers (Bailey 1999; Dollery and Wallis 2001; Rhodes 1997; Stoker 1999) have recently argued that the presence of a vast network of entities beyond government that are engaged in local services delivery or quality of life issues makes it unrealistic to treat local government as a single entity (see also Goss 2001). Analytical recognition of this broader concept of local governance is critical to developing a framework for local governance that is responsive (doing the right thing delivering services that are consistent with citizens’ preferences or are citizen focused); responsible (doing the right thing the right way working better but costing less and benchmarking with the best); and accountable (to citizens, through a rights-based approach). Such analysis is important because the role of local government in such a setting contrasts sharply with its traditional role. But for the purpose of this research work we shall use Egbeda local as a case study.
Egbeda Local Government was created in 1989 when it was carved out of Lagelu Local Government, a structure that has been in existence since 1961. It is bounded in the East by Osun River, in the North by Lagelu Local Government, in the South by Ona-Ara local Government and in the West by the Lagos-Ibadan Express Road. The Local government currently has 4 urban political wards and seven rural wards covering a total of 136.83km2.
The head quarter is at Egbeda; it has 40 primary schools apart from several private nursery and primary schools. The most common factory and small scale industries are block making, sawmills and metal and steel works. There are also big factories such as Nigeria Breweries plc, Coca-Cola Bottling Company, Bode Foam, Atlantic Carpet. Egbeda Lcoal Government also has some Hotels and Commercial Shopping Complex, New Gbagi (Bola Ige) International Market, Youth Village at Egbeda for Youth Development.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The people of Egbeda local government area have been crying to the State government through their local government concerning some of the most pressing issues in their community; the major issues here is environmental issues which is associated with the destruction of resources, basic environmental infrastructure and service, and exposure of population to man-made hazards and pollution. Some of the problems identified in Egbeda Local Government Area are:
(i) Lack of the most basic solid waste services in crowded and low income neighborhood in the urban areas of Ogbere, Adogba, Isebo and other urban communities due to poor road network and lack of open dump sites.
(ii) Behind the Nigerian Breweries plc factory, commercial Sewage and Silages from domestic, commercial and industrial sources is flushed into the stream and the inadequate drainage system with many hazardous health effects associated with unsafe sanitation.
(iii) Lack of or inefficient transport services and infrastructure in the local government area is a major impediment to economic growth and urban productivity. With the exception of Alarere Layout and few tarred roads linking Segelu Hotel to Iwo Road, all others are untarred roads with poor drainage system. Majority of the roads, about 70% of the road network, needs upgrading including the rural roads and good drainage system.
(iv) Pollution of surface waters at the strabag old site (Ikuogbolekun area) where rock was blasted long time ago, can result in problems from direct contact. The pond poses danger to the community as many children had fallen into the unprotected water.
(v) Energy is a key input for urban development especially electricity. But many urban neighbourhoods in Egbeda Local Government Area have been thrown into darkness for months without succor from PHCN. Transformers are required for new areas and replacement of old transmers in Alakia/Sarumi area around the New Airport. Iron Benders, Sawmillers, other light industries are already embarking on survival strategy using generating plants which adds to the cost of production.
(vi) Water supply is a mirage in the urban sector of Egbeda Local government despite the capacity of Asejire Dam which supplies water to Ibadan Metropolis. Residents rely on private deep wells and there are many areas that require the attention of the local government in this regard especially, Alabidun, Sarumi, Akinfenwa, Ogbere, Oriyangi etc.
(vii) There are neither historic structures nor religious monuments including open spaces for recreation and social ceremonies. The open spaces have been taken over in the process of developing or redeveloping the new urban areas for residential, commercial and industrial purposes.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the roles and responsibility of local government?
2. What are the effects of good governance on Egbeda local government area of Oyo state?
3. What are the effects of poor infrastructure on Egbeda local government area?
4. Is there any relationship between good governance and rural development?
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: there is no significant relationship between good governance and rural development
H1: there is a significant relationship between good governance and rural development
H0: poor infrastructure has no significant effect on the development of Egbeda local government.
H1: poor infrastructure has significant effect on the development of Egbeda local government.
1.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The aims of the research work are to determine:
1. The roles and responsibility of local government.
2. The effect of good governance on Egbeda local government area of Oyo state.
3. The effect of poor infrastructure on Egbeda local government area.
4. The relationship between good governance and rural development.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The research work is considered an important one as it will discuss the role and responsibilities of the local government, it will also reveal the effect of good governance on the local government area, it will discuss the effect of ineffecient transport services on the local government. Finally the research work will discuss the effect of poor infrastructure in the development of local government area.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The research work will be focus on local governance and the development of egeda local government area of Oyo State.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS: The researher was with limited funds and cannot cover all the areas of Egbeda local government area of Oyo state, but the research was able to get relevant information concerning the research topic.
TIME CONSTRAINTS: The researcher being a student was left with limited time to do more research on the topic but of other departmental activities like presentation of seminars, submission of assignment and attendance to lectures but the researcher was able to meet up with time given for the completion of the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
GOOD GOVERNANCE: According to UNDP (1997), good governance is “… participatory, transparent and accountable, effective and equitable, and it promotes the rule of law. It ensures that political, social and economic priorities are based on broad consensus in society and that the voices of the poorest and the most vulnerable are heard in decision-making over the allocation of development resources.
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