MANAGEMENT TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, OKO)
Management training and development techniques have been found to be an important aspect of personal department today because of changes in behaviours of employee and change in office procedure which required additional training to improve the skill and efficiency of employee. When employees are newly employed in an organization, an orientation training is given to them. These programmes are designed to families the new employees with their job environment hence, the need for training will forever be emphasized in carrying out this study, it is to be divided in five chapters. Chapter one deals with background of study, its statement of problem, its significance of study, purpose of study and scope of study. Chapter three deals with area of study, population size and sample size, instrument for data analysis, data collection. Chapter four deals with the data presentation and analysis and finding. Chapter five deals with discussion, recommendation, conclusion, limitation, suggestion of further studies.
1.0 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The term “Management training and development technique” refer to the needs for staff development and training in an organization. It is when individuals in the organization grow that the organization itself grow through such steps taken by themselves to improve their knowledge and skills.
Also after the employee has been selected the next step naturally is his training. All types of office jobs, even the simple ones that is dispatch of letters, handling of telephone, etc e some training for their efficient performance. Even old employee needs some training at various stages of their carrier. The basic purpose for training is to direct and guide the terming of employee so that they may perform their duties as efficiently as possible. The importance of urgency of training arises because of rapid changes of technological milen of industries, the growth and simplicities of present day enterprises, the rising in educational levels, new educational processes and change in socio system and cultural patterns.
Training therefore refers to all the processes that lead to the development of the personnel in an organization so that they assure a higher order of assessment training, it is also the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. In addition, training and development are the necessary prerequisite for an organizational development in this area such as induction training, in house training day release of courses, specific training of technical nature e.g a sight at work on a bottling line and general training given to a worker in an industry.
Method of Training
The various methods of training includes:
INDUCTION TRAINING: This is known as orientation training. Even new employee at any level should undergo an induction programme which should include information on the organization, its structure products or services, policies, information about suggestion schemes etc. The induction training should be arranged at intervals over a period of perhaps three to six months with the most important topics being covered in the early stage.
JOB TRAINING: This consists of a combination of skills and knowledge needed to perform the duties of the job to the required standard. A carefully integrated programme consisting of on the job and off the job training is often the best approach.
ON-THE JOB TRAINING: This refers to the training of an employee in the job he is doing or his to do, it is considered in his own job and place where he works.
Training on the job may be imparted by a skilled and experience workers or by a supervisor or even by a special instruction. There are various type of on the job training and these include the following:
- Understudy system by which a trainee is taught by the man on job.
- Filling – squared method; which aims at providing experience in all the departments.
- Job rotate – by which the trainee is periodically shifting from one job to another so that he may acquire a general background.
OFF THE JOB TRAINING: With a simple office job, on the training can be provided to office workers. But when jobs are complicated and call for addition to on the job training, some technical knowledge and experience the employee may be asked to undertake off-the-job training and these may include
- Vestable Training; in which workers are trained in specific job in a special parts of the organization where the actual looking requirement is created.
- Conference Methods: This method is group centered approach by which the leaders guide the discussion. It is used to pool ideas and information amongst employees.
- Case Method: Under which trainees are placed possession of facts and are asked to draw conclusions from them, in this way, the develop and improve power of reasoning and analysis.
Junior staff should be regarded as the raw material of future supervisors or managers and should be given commensurate attention. Junior staff should be taught how to do things e.g how to check a voucher and then left to their devices. They should be encourage to extend their leanings in order to improve in their skills.
A supervisor is the one that oversees the work of others. He is in the middle management cadre. He is responsible for employee toward better performance. A supervisors training is important because he motivates the employees towards better performance of work until recently office supervisor where left to acquire these skills by experience but it can be a long process and is made much easier by proper training.
Practical training for management often consists of a definite policy where by clerks are regularly transferred from one department to another so that a bread experience is obtain of all sides of the organization. This is an excellent plan since it is accepted by the workers and is definitely linked with a promotion policy.
Most office mangers take their places in specialized positions such as company secretaries, accountants, sales mangers, personnel managers and so on, for each of these and for other special vocation, there are various professional qualifications together with study for one of these qualifications. Training for management can be divided into three main groups.
- Management courses leading to diploma in management studies conducted at collages, regional management centres, business schools and universities.
- Short residential courses
- In–house management development programme, advantages should be taken of the following.
- Institutes providing management training such as Nigeria institute of management (NIM) the administrative staff college of Nigeria (ASCON) centre for management development (CND) and research institute.
- Seminars and workshops are part of the job training.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem encountered in management training and development techniques are as followed:
Many a times, in respect to industrial training, huge amount of money is invested for the training but as soon as a worker is trained there is likely to be a highly trained staff who is occupationally more mobile.
Industrial training fund was created by the decree NP. 47 of 1971 to help in training of personnel which is an arm of the federal ministry of industries which is made mandatory for firms to invest in training hatter engaged in business of bushing.
It is also true that during economic depression, workers are retrenched all in the name of declining productivity.
Inadequate supply of rural materials and spare parts will lessen demand for another kind of skill. The training of workers on specific skills than general training is that, it is often very difficult to retain workers with specific skill, the result is redundance in the period of recession, worker on junior cadre who gain admission to a higher institution are often advised to resign rather than take in service leave with or without salary. Another problem is that guide often, the most promotable junior staff may be in training and may not have advanced enough to take over when the new opening occurs.
Therefore, a policy of promoting from within should be modified by the words “whenever feasible”.
Promotion from within, where serving managers are given benefits on advantages as an opening occurs. These policies has come, limitations sometimes employees may question a promotion a promotion feeling that the right person has not been selected to fill a position, the promotion may be questionable and create more problems of moral which the policy is aimed at solving, unless there is a convincing proof that one of the three employee has cheers edge over. Others to get the promotion, the company will be advised to recruit a manager from outside.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The project study was promoted by the researchers desire to determine and ascertain.
- The training method and techniques to be adopted to improve the moral of employees and productivity.
- The effects of training and development of skills on employee in Nigeria.
- If training of workers on specific skills rather than general training will make it difficult to retain employee with specific skills during an economic depression in Nigeria.
- To ascertain whether training and development of skills lead to fresh view points and ideals on business activities in Nigeria.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Training is the organized procedure by which people acquire knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. The aim of training is to achieve a change in the behaviour of those trained. The importance of training therefore includes;
- It helps the trained person to be more effective and efficient in his job
- It reduce learning time, the trained employee can be easily apply what he learned from training to real job situation.
- It helps to reduce waste by minimizing mistake.
- The employee who acquire new knowledge and skill can easily secure more lucrative jobs between working conditions.
- It reduces turnover rate, absentism, accident and grievance rate. There is every tendency that if an employee is well trained for a particular job, he may develop special interest for the job and as well always like to go to work.
In the aspect of questionnaire distribution and collection, the researcher faces a lot of financial problem designing a good questionnaire. Sometimes it is very difficult to meet the people who will give him the required information in their office, the case is the same when he wants to collect the questionnaire so distributed. This poses a limitation to the research study.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What management training and development techniques are more appropriate or less expensive for Federal Polytechnic, Oko.
- What approach and techniques is management of Federal Polytechnic, Oko, adopting in their training and development of staff?
- Does staff training and development yield to organizational effectiveness.
- Does training and development end of coaxing or persuades staff to do what the management wants?
- Does training and development improve the staff and management of Federal Polytechnic, Oko.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work was conducted and specifically carried out in federal Polytechnic, Oko in Orumba North L.G.A Anambra State.
The aim of this scope is intended to measure the level in Federal Polytechnic, Oko in Orumba North L.G.A.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The concept training has been seen as part of human development which is a process of enlarging peoples choice. In principle this choice can be change overtime or infinity, at all level of human development we have three essential facet, the first is for long life (health), to acquire knowledge through training and the last one is to have access to resources for expansion.
The concept development implies improvement, developing competence such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial, for the growth of the organization.
The concept management consist of activities undertaken by one or more persons to co-ordinate the activities of other persons to achieve results not achievable by one person acting alone.
The concept management training and development is an important approach incorporated into organization with the aim to improve the staff effectiveness, increase productivity and lessing cost of production, it continue process in the organizational effectiveness. Organizational effectiveness is the degree in which an organization produce it intend output. Daft in (1983) view organizational effectiveness as the degree to which an organization realized it goal, he went further to say that organization pursue multiple goal and such goal must be ascertain in the face of competition and with the limited resources.
Techniques for management training and development.
The techniques for development are:
- Understudy: This is good succession planning, which allows for smooth transition of work when one officer leaves a schedule or organization.
- Job Rotating: This is necessary for all workers to move from one schedule to another within the same organization to allow for competence on all sphere of work.
- Self development/self assessment: Self development means a personal desire to improve through an individual attempt to embark on study and practical experience. Self assessment is a personal identification of strengths, opportunities, weakness and challenges and an attempt to improve and build on current efforts for a more fulfilling corporate movement.