MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF NTAMIRI ALONG UMUAGWO AXIS OF THE STREAM

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract – – – – – – – – – –
1.0 CHAPTER ONE
Introduction – – – – – – – – – –
1.1 Aims / objectives of the study – – – – – – –
1.2 Statement of problems – – – – – – – –
1.3 Hypothesis – – – – – – – – –
1.4 Scope of limitation – – – – – – – –
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review – – – – – – – –
2.1 The major group of biological Pollutions of water – – –
2.2 Source of water supply – – – – – – – –
2.3 Source of water pollution – – – – – – –
2.4 Treatment of water sample
International standard for drinking water – – – – – –
Diseases from water – – – – – – – – –
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials & methods
3.0 Materials
3.1 Media preparation
3.2 Collection of samples
3.3 Collection of samples
3.4 Methods of water analysis
3.5 Determination of PH
Determination of bacteria of the coliform
Culture techniques
Plate count technique
Presumption coliform (multiple tube fermebtation
3.5.4 Confirmatory test
3.5.5 Completed test
3.5.6 Test for indole
3.5.7 Methyl red test
3.5.8 Sugar test
3.5.9 Oxidase test
3.5.10 Catakase test
3.5.11 The slide cougulase test
3.5.12 Gram stain techniques
3.5.13 Detection of faecal stredtococci
3.5.14 Detection of escherichi coli test
3.5.15 Organism suspected after gram staining
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS
CHAPTER FIVE
Discussion
CHAPTER SIX
6.1 Conclusion
6.2 Recommendation
References

ABSTRACT

Ntamiri River, Along Umuagwo axis were studied over a period of twelve months to determine the effects of detergent effluent discharges on the aspect of water quality of the river. Water samples from Points A, B and C were screened for microbiological analysis. The results revealed that the level of pollution varied depending on season and that the water quality was acceptable at the upstream (Point A) but became impaired at Points B and C, indicating significant pollution from detergent effluent discharges. The analysis of the microbiological characteristics of water samples from the three points revealed high microbial and faecal contamination with microbial load in the order of 105 and MPN of ≤ 1800. The detergent effluents discharged into Points B and C were found to support the growth of micro organisms such as Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter species that are pathogenic in nature with higher loads. The results showed that water samples from the river contained toxic substances with higher microbial loads. The detrimental effects of the discharge effluent on the aspect of water quality of Ntamiri River River were discussed.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Water is a liquid mineral. It consists of two atoms of hydrogen combined with one atom of oxygen. Water is a tasteless, odourless and colourless mobile liquid except in large volume where it appears blue. It has a melting point of OoC (320f) and a boiling point of 1000C (2120f). Water is a basic necessity of life; in the absence higher animals survive only but a few hours or days. It has several uses such as washing cooking, food processing, swimming, and among others. Out of these uses, drinking of water seems to be the most sensitive as it could have a direct deleterious impact on health of human beings.

Therefore, drinking water should be potable free diseases, or toxic substance (Beren 1991). Water is portable when it is colourless. Odourless, or tasteless and also free from poisonous, corroding, staining substances as well as disease casuiong oirganisms (Cruich 1972). The problem of providing safe and adequate water is as old as life on earth. Water can be made unifit or unsafe for drinking it contamination occurs either by nature or activities of human beings.

Perhaps the greatest danger associated with drinking water is contamination by human excrement (Forest 1979). In most cases, the pollution/contamination is hardly severe and is not particularly detrimental to health.

Thus a few substances and microbes that are health hazard do occur in water, and can cause illness or even death. From microbiological point of view, the pathogens most frequently transmitted through water supply ranges from ultrasmall virus to the microscopic bacteria and relatively large cysts entemoeba instolytica. These organisms cense infections of intestinal track, when consumed censing amebic dysentery, and Gardia lamblia is a protozoa responsible for Giadiasis. Defective plumbing for example was the cause of out break during the world fair in Chicago 1933 (Garelick 1987) water borne disease cause acute diarrhea, often last 2-3 months. The most common water borne disease can be by bacteria includes typhoid fever, paratyphoid. Asiatic cholera and bacteria dysentery.

Other diseases that may be transmitted by water include brucellosis, shige /losis, these diseases are consuming. Untreated water (Hetolett 1921) various countries of the world and the world Health organization (WHO) has set up standards for water quality against which the level of pollution can be assessed. The world Health organization (WHO) National Agency for food and Drug Administration control (NAFDAC), standard for potable water include the following, that in 100ml of water coliform bacteria should be absent, total plate count of bacteria growth should be 100 CFU/ML of water. Hence the sanitary Quality of water should not be over looked since contaminated water can cause health hazards when consumed.

According to guideline for drinking water quality of WHO (1998)

TABLE 1

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION STANDARD FOR DRINKING WATER

PH

 

COLOUR

 

Dissolved solids

 

Total Hardness

 

Calcium

 

Iron

 

Chloride

 

Nitrate

 

Coliform

 

5.0 – 9.0

 

15 Hazen unit

 

500 mg/l

 

500 mg/l

 

75 mg/l

 

0.3 mg/l

 

200 mg/l

 

45 mg/l

 

10 colonies

 

 

1.1     AIMS / OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objective of this project is to make Microbiological study of Ntamiri Rivers along Umuagwo axis.

To identify contamination microbial advice on measures to control pollution of water bodies etc.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

The treated water produced by Ntamiri Rivers could be contaminated by defective plumbing which cause the rush of water out of the pipe forming pull mixed with sewage matters. The pull eventually sucks back through the burst pipe into the pipe line being distributed to various locations and collected as drinking water.

1.3     HYPOTHESIS

H.O:   there is difference in the microbial load of water from Ntamiri River at point of production against the load as the point of supply and consumption.

HI:     There is a statistical difference between the microbial load of water from the Ntamiri Rivers as the production point against the load as supply and consumption point.

1.4     SCOPE OF LIMITATION

The project is set to identify only microbial pollutants the method of microbial analysis is limited to the techniques and materials available in our laboratory as against high tech equipment which may be found else where.

REFERENCES

Ajayi, S.O and Osibanjo, O. (1981): Pollution studies on Nigeria Rivers 1: Prelimnary report on the pollution level of river Ona and River Ogunpa. Bull. Chem. Soc. Nigeria. 2. 71 – 86.

Akpata, T.V (1990): Pollution flora of some wetlands in Nigeria. Nigeria wetlands. Emmi Press; Ibadan. pp. 130 – 137.

APHA (1985): Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association 16th edition, Washington DC. 1268pp.

APHA (1992): Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. 3rd Ed. American public Health Association, Washington DC. ISBN NO:0-875531733.

Bakare, A.A, Lateef, A., Amuda, O.S. and Afolabi, R. (2003): The aquatic toxicity and characterization of chemical and microbiological constituents of water samples from Oba River, Odo-oba, Nigeria. Asia Jr. of nmicrobial. Biotech. Env. Sc. 5(1) pp11 – 17. Blum, D., Huttly, S.R.A., Okoko, J.I, Akujobi, C., Kirkwood,

B.R and Feachm, R.G (1987): The bacteriological quality of traditional water sources in North-Eastern. Imo State, Nigeria. Epidem. Inf. 99: 429-437.

Boon, J.H, and Huisman, N.E (1996): Viral, bacterial and fungal diseases of siluroidei, cultured for human consumption. Aquatic Living Resources 9: 153 – 164.