Perceived Effect of Instructional Materials on Students Academic Achievement
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The importance of instructional materials in the teaching and learning situation in school cannot be overemphasized. Instructional materials are teaching aids that use both sight and sound to convey meanings to students and enrich the learning experience of students (Nolan, 1988).
Concerning education, instructional materials or teaching devices that appeal to the sense of sight and sound are referred to as audio-visual aids. These help to motivate and make students participate in the learning activities with good retention through good pictures or charts produced to be seen with eyes and sound to be heard with ears simultaneously.
When instructional materials are used according to Nolan (1988), students or learners interests are aroused, the lesson becomes real, students participate more actively and they retain much more than when Instructional materials are not used.
Studies such as that which was conducted by Bekaiye (1989) and Iwoh (1988), revealed that instructional materials were either not available in schools or where they are available, they were not effectively used. Instructional materials may be like pictures or graphs in nature. They include models, field trips, charts, textbooks, chalkboards, illustrations etc.
There is truth in the adage which says “a picture is worth a thousand words”. Nolan (1988) felt that students retain much more when they see and hear than when they only read and see. He also felt that learning comes about in a shorter period when instructional materials are relied upon.
The role of instructional materials in the teaching and learning system cannot be overemphasized. Ademola (2004) stressed that instructional materials serve as an aid for effective and efficient learning in any learning system and that it is also a pivot for the economic and social justification of any learning system. He further argues that instructional materials do not only play a vital role in terms of the learning process of individuals but also helps the overall development of the individuals. Oshodi (1996) in his opinion says Nigeria must release the good work of her investment in education through instructional materials for it is these materials that will bring into reality, her work. Hence, he advocated for the supply of instructional materials in schools. He also advises that instructional materials that facilitate teaching should be used throughout all educational levels from nursery education to university education.
Subsequently, the importance of instructional materials in achieving educational objectives was vividly highlighted by Ajayi and Salami (1999), when they submitted that instructional materials improve teachers competence, the effectiveness of instruction and good classroom control. It makes the learning environment more appreciable and conducive. The learner’s attention is better controlled and sustained throughout the lesson.
Adeyemi (1993), supported the above opinion by saying that when children see things it makes a much more lasting impression on them than by mere hearing about things. Thus, this study is concerned with the perceived effect of instructional materials on students academic achievement. In this regard selected secondary schools in Lagos State shall be used as cases for study.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In every facet of life, man explores many ways of communicating his ideas, skills and knowledge effectively. The ability to recall and apply appropriate by what is being taught is learning. A teacher is aware of this basic truth and therefore seeks possible ways of making teaching effective. Exclusive use of words alone to convey meaning, ideas and knowledge is ineffective. Apart from being ineffective, it runs contrary to some principles of learning. Common experience and research revealed that people learn differently, therefore, the teacher has to present instruction in a way that would gain the attention of the learners that learners will be able to recall what is being taught with less difficulty and also make sure that learning takes place effectively. This can be achieved by the various materials the teacher employees to make learning effective.
The rationale then for using instructional materials is to cater for the unique learning style of various categories of learners. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the perceived effect of instructional materials on students academic achievement. As such, emphasis shall be on the influence of arousing and sustaining student learning interest, changing attitude, level of acquisition and retention of factual information as well as the motivation of learners.
PURPOSE OF STUDY
This study intends to determine the perceived effect of instructional materials on students academic achievement. It also aimed at investigating how instructional materials could contribute to teaching and learning in the classroom. Amongst others, the study is designed.
i. To find out whether instructional materials arouses learner’s interest.
ii. To find out whether instructional materials aid learner’s retention of information.
iii. To determine the influence of instructional materials on the class participation of learners.
iv. To determine the influence of instructional materials on learners motivation.
i. To what extent do instructional materials influence the educational achievement of students? This study was designed to address the following additional research questions:
ii. Does instructional materials influence the learners class participation?
iii. Does instructional materials motivate students in the learning process?
iv. Does instructional materials arouse the learners learning interest?
v. Does instructional materials aid the learner’s retention ability?
1. Instructional materials will not significantly influence the learner’s class participation.
2. Instructional materials will not significantly motivate students in the learning process.
3. Instructional materials will not significantly arouse the learners learning interest.
4. Instructional materials with not significantly influence student’s retention ability.
5. Instructional materials will not significantly influence student’s academic achievement.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The perceived effect of instructional materials on students academic achievement is significant with particular reference to some selected secondary schools in Mushin Local Government both private and public schools.
The outcome of this study and its recommendations will motivate various governments and school authorities to fashion out ways of effectively utilizing instructional materials in the teaching and learning of subjects in secondary schools.
Specifically, students could be put upright in the effective use of instructional materials by the teacher for quicker assimilation and retention of facts in the teaching-learning system in various schools.
The parents would not be left out also. They would be well informed as to the importance of the use of appropriate instructional materials by teachers in the teaching of the various subject as well as been able to come to the aid of schools financially towards procurement of modern instructional materials and appreciate projects given to their wards as assignments.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
For this study. The researcher focused and concentrated on five secondary schools randomly selected in Mushin Local Government both public and private as the target population.
The names of the schools used were:
1. Eko Boys Secondary School (Public)
2. Barch Freeman High School (Public)
3. Standard Comprehensive College (Private)
4. Nigeria Model Secondary School (Private)
5. Ransome Kuti Memorial Grammar School (Public)
All located in Mushin Local Government
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to a geographical area in Mushin.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Perceived: This means to become aware of through the senses, to see, to understand etc.
Instructional Materials: These are materials that facilitate the teaching and learning process.
Learning: It means to gain knowledge, skills, make processes by being taught.
Teachers: This refers to those that are concerned with imparting knowledge, values, skills and culture in the curriculum to the learners.
Learners: These are the receiver or to whom knowledge, skills and cultural value are transmitted.
Achievement: This means to accomplish or to get something done.
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