Perceived Social Support and Socio-demographic Variables as Correlates of Quality of Life Among Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patients in a Teaching Hospital, Ogun State
Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is an incurable disease that makes the casualty susceptible and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality despite the availability of treatment and care.HIV/AIDS in Nigeria remains a vital public/community health issue since Nigeria is a base or environment with many people living with HIV unlike other countries worldwide. The Quality of Life (QoL) of HIV/AIDS patient is crucial as well as the disease progression because of their need for adaption to changes in their lives which include financial & societal changes. Therefore, consideration for improving their quality of life is paramount. Compounding the lack of cure for HIV/AIDS, is the fact that PLWHA are still faced with social support issues. It is in the light of these that the researcher carried out this study to explore perceived social support, and socio demographic variables, as correlates of QoL among Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patients in a Teaching Hospital Ogun State.
This study employed a descriptive correlational survey design. A total population 160 People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) participated in the study. World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Instrument (WHOQOLHIV Bref) and Multidimensional scale for perceived social support were used for data collection. The questionnaire was validated and tested for reliability with overall alpha coefficient 0.8. 160copies of the questionnaire was distributed and 149 was returned making 93% return rate. The analysis involved descriptive & inferential statistics.
The findings from the analysis showed that participant disagree to the kind of social support given (mean=3.65, SD=2.11). Quality of life was moderate and participant averagely dissatisfied with them (mean=3.48, SD=1.21).Spirituality domain has the highest mean score and environment has the lowest mean score. The findings showed that gender, occupation, educational level and HIV serostatus does not influence the QoL of PLWHA. The tested hypotheses using PPMC showed that: there is a statistical significant negative relationship between social support and Quality of life (p<0.05), there is a statistical significant negative relationship between educational level and social support (P=0.027), there is no statistical significant relationship between socio-demographic variable and social support.
The study concluded that social support significantly contributes to the QoL of PLWHA. An improvement in the kind of social support will invariably result in a better Quality of life.
Therefore, it is recommended that appropriate intervention programs in the specific area of social support of PLWHA which will in turn improve Quality of life especially environment aspect. Sectors like housing, works environment should be involved in Quality of life improvement. Also the result from this study may assist Policy makers, health workers, and government in planning and improving overall Quality of life.
Keywords: Social support, Socio-demographic variables, People living with HIV/AIDS, and Quality of Life
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