PREPARATION OF SOAP USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF OILS AND EXPLORING IT’S PROPERTIES

ABSTRACT

Soaps are the sodium salts or potassium salts of stearic acids or any other fatty acids. They are prepared by the saponification process, which is, reacting the oil which contain triglycerides with caustic soda (NaOH) to give the soap. However different oils have different composition of fatty acids which are responsible for different properties of soaps made out of them. In the present work 5 different types of oils are taken. They are blended in various ratios to prepare 14 different samples of soap. Different properties of these samples were analyzed to see which soap is the best one. The cleansing and lathering properties of all samples were compared. The blend of coconut oil and castor oil at 3:1 ratio is found out to be the best with 76.8% of TFM and 89.46% of yield. The best blend is analyzed for various properties and they were compared with that given in the literature. The saponification values, iodine values of coconut oil and castor oil were found out and these values were also found for the blend. It was found that the blend was having SAP value of 230.4 and iodine value of 40 which are higher than the individual values. Thus soap prepared using blend of both these oils has better properties than the soaps prepared by individual oils.

CONTENTS

Chapter 1

Introduction

Chapter 2

Literature Review

2.1

Semi Boiled Process

2.2

Full Boiled

2.3

Cold Process

2.4

Different types of soap making oils

2.5

Castor Oil

2.6

Olive Oil

2.7

Neem Oil

3.1

Coconut Oil

Chapter 3

Materials and Methods

3.1

Materials Required

3.2

Methodology

3.2.1

Preparation of Soap

3.2.2

Comparing different

properties of soap with detergent

3.2.3

Blending of Oils

3.2.4

Calculation of TFM

3.2.5

Calculation of free alkali

3.2.6

Analysis of the best blend

3.2.7

Saponification Value

3.2.8

Iodine Value

3.2.9

Unsaponifiable Matter

3.2.10

Acid Value

Chapter 4

Results and Discussion

4.1

Comparison of soap and detergent

4.2

Properties of soap after blending of oils

4.3

TFM values of soaps

4.4

Analysis of the best blend

4.5

Saponification Values

4.5

Iodine Values

4.6

Unsaponifiable Matter

4.7

Acid Value

Chapter 5

Conclusion

Chapter 6

References

List of Tables

Sl.no.

Name of the table

Page

no.

1

Composition of coconut oil

13

2

Yield of soap using individual oils

23

3

Properties of soap versus detergent

23

4

Moisture and Hardness of soap samples from

24

individual oils

5

Yield and pH values of soap samples from blending of

24

oils

6

Lathering and cleansing power of soap samples from

25

blending of oils

7

Moisture and Hardness of soap samples from blending

26

of oils

8

Total fatty matter of best blends of oils

27

9

Saponification value of the oil blend

28

10

Iodine value of the oil blend

28

11

Unsaponifiable matter

29

12

Acid Value of the oil blend

30

Request Complete Work Here