Principals’ Motivational Strategies and Teachers’ Job Satisfaction
The purpose of this study is to investigate principals’ motivational strategies and job satisfaction of secondary school teachers in Benue State. Descriptive survey design was adopted in this study. A total of 235 out of 2282 teachers were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Six research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Three experts in the department of Educational Foundations carried out the face validation. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was 0.78 after the reliability test. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while t-test statistics was used to test the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. It was found that teamwork and teacher involvement are motivational strategies that give teachers job satisfaction in secondary schools in Benue state and that there was no significant difference between the opinions of first graduate and postgraduate teachers on the motivating factors. It was recommended that teachers should be encouraged by payment of allowances for team activities and any other functions that promote teacher-involvement in school administration.
Other recommendations included among others, that teachers should be adequately occupied each day with functions that would make them happy. This can be done by allowing teachers to make decisions about their work.
Background of the Study
Secondary education is a very important level of education in Nigeria where solid foundation for higher education and useful living is laid. According to Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2004), secondary education is the form of education children receive after primary education and before tertiary stage. She also stated that the broad aim of secondary education within the national objectives is the preparation of children for useful living within the society and for higher education. Teachers are required at this level of education to help in the achievement of the objectives and there is a need to motivate them, if the aims of secondary education are to be achieved. On the other hand it appears that teachers are not reckoned with nor appreciated in Nigeria. Emenike (2003) affirmed that the Nigerian society still rate teaching as the lowest civil service job. Furthermore, while other teachers work in order to satisfy their needs in life, those in Benue State, Nigeria constantly agitate to a need for one thing or the other, which is a sign of lack of job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction is one of the most frequently investigated variable in studies in organizational behaviour. This is probably due to its positive impact on organizational effectiveness and efficiency (Obi, 1992). Obi (1997), also stressed that teachers’ effectiveness lead to opportunities to produce and effect changes in 14 the school among teacher in secondary schools. Despite teachers’ efforts in school effectiveness and efficiency, they neither get a commensurate remuneration nor the prestige and social status, which they deserve. This implies that teachers who work tirelessly for the development of the school through grooming of the students are not accorded the necessary recognition and respect which these teachers deserve.
This also influences their job satisfaction and in the long run goes a long way to affect teaching and learning. In search of job satisfaction, workers are usually inclined to leave the job at hand for better ones. Okonkwo (1997) stated that teachers who are not satisfied with their jobs, withdraw to other jobs which they believe might satisfy their needs. This is the situation in Benue State where teachers indulge in other activities during and after school teachers that are detrimental to their professional calling. Since job satisfaction from the basis for worker’ decisions about their work- whether they remain or quit, the parameter, for measuring teachers’ job satisfaction in the teaching profession could be in their length of service. Maintaining a high level of worker’s job satisfaction is vital in increasing organizational productivity.
Job satisfaction is an acceptable and happy work condition. Emenike (2003), defined it as a pleasurable, emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job, an affective to ones job and an attitude towards one’s job.