PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF TEACHING BUSINESS STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The need to check the Problems and Prospects of teaching Business Studies as necessitate this research work. This Study was carried out at five selected schools at Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos State. The total Population comprises of 80 which is categories into two for which the students population as 65 and Teachers population is 15 and a sample is used for the analysis (25 fro each schools). The Instrument used for the collection of the data now questionnaire which made up of 9 question items for the teachers and 11 question items for the students which were analyze using simple percentage. It was found among others that Prospects of Teaching Business Studies, it is recommended that more equipments should be brought to and the students learning, especially in the study of typewriting as this is a branch of Business Studies which emphasizes the practice of typing. That the provision and choice of textbooks could be a headache to the teacher and the students because of the difficulty in finding textbooks which suit the local and particular needs of both teachers and the students in the classroom.
Government should provide Guidance and counselor to ensure that the teaching of Business studies is utilized.
1.0 BACKGROUND OF STUDY:
Business Studies has been discussed as a social science discipline which ought to be taught in all post primary schools in Nigeria as stated by the National Policy on Education.
Business Studies is made up of a number of subject areas. In other words, it is an integrations of many subjects, it is offered as an integrated subject at the Junior Secondary level comprising, office practice, commerce, shorthand, typewriting and book-keeping. However, at the Senior Secondary level, the subjects are separated into shorthand, typewriting, economics, book-keeping and accounting with a view to providing career options. The introduction of Business Studies into the national curriculum as reflected in the national policy on Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1981) and the Junior Secondary School (J.S.S) and senior Secondary School (S.S.S) national curriculum (Federal Ministry of Education, 1984, 1985) has created an enormous challenge for the trainers of Business Studies teachers, particularly at the N.C.E and the undergraduate levels. This challenge has emerged in the area of designing programmes that would meet the following requirement as reflected in the provocation (J.S.S) and vocational (S.S.S) curricular in terms of:
· Knowledge integration
· learning objectives
· spiral and concentric sequencing of course content.
· Modular or specific competency requirements.
The key features of Business Studies curriculum as highlighted above resulted in behaviorally orientated curriculum patterns, particularly at the J.S.S. level. Again, the organization of course content has depended prepondentantly on specifying units of instruction. This has been achieved through spiral sequencing (for theory based subject, e.g. commerce) and concentric sequencing (skilled –based subject e.g typewriting). of the content of each subject. Efforts to meet course objectives on the other hand, gave rise to the definition of performance objectives which are intended to foster concepts, inquiry, learning and utilization relatedness as explained in Ekpenyong (1994).
The first impressive effort to training N.C.E teachers that would meet the curriculum structure and course objectives of J.S.S and S.S.S. Business Studies programmes was undertaken by the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE), (1987). The (NBTE) Business Studies curriculum had several features that were intended to produce teachers who be adequately suited for teaching Bossiness Studies at the secondary school level. Courses were specified in modules with the performance objectives for each module clearly specified common core subject which every student had to study for the first 2 years, were specified. Specialization in either accounting or secretarial options were reserved for the third and final year.
However, when the (National Commission for college of Education (NCCE), inherited the N.C.E curriculum from the NBTE in 1990, it decided to shed most of the features of the N.C.E curriculum as developed by the latter. For instance, the modular structure and course specifications, as well as a statement of objectives were abandoned. What can be seen, therefore, as a serious weakness in the National Commission for college of education curriculum for teachers of Business Education is that of stating course outlines in syllabus context. This, certainly, can hardly help in experienced students/teachers who need guidance in formulating their lesson objectives appropriately.
While the above defects remain, the National Commission for college of education must be commended for its effort in trying to bring about the important innovations in the business teachers education curriculum, especially the bid to introduce new courses such as entrepreneurship and information technology in its revised curriculum which was scheduled to take off in the 2002/2003 session.
The importance of facilities to the overall success of any educational enterprise has never been in doubt. It is on this account that Buremoh (1985), Olutola (1989) and Morphet and Roe (1974) emphasize the need for the provision of adequate training facilities. In business teachers education as is applicable to other technical course, the need for the availability of functional training facilities and equipment, such as modern office machines terms of computers, word processors and electronic typewriters, and office copiers is to say the least critical, there is also a drive need for adequate working and storage space.
It was on this account that in developing the teacher education curriculum, the design teams for various subject areas such as accounting, commerce, word processing and office management produced a list of minimum instructional equipment that, would be needed for the provision of quality instruction.
Although Oyedeji (1991) could not find a significant difference in the performance of Business Studies with sufficient Instructional equipment and those without it, experience Business Education Teaching indicates that lack of equipment can seriously hamper student progress, particularly in skill subject areas.
Inadequate workforce supply has, for along time been recognized as a major factor militating against the successful and effective teaching of Business Studies at both Junior and Senior Secondary School levels of education. The pitiable situation in low Business teachers supply can be explained in terms of structural imbalance in the educational system (Aina. 2000). These problems are reflected in the continuous poor performance of Business Studies.
1.1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:
The problem associated with the teaching Business Studies, if not critically looked into will make the objectives of the subject unattainable and difficult to have impact on the learners. The purpose of the study will be to find out some of the problems that are encountered in the teaching of Business Studies. The study will look into the possible solution and how their knowledge of the subject to students and the method adopted by them.
1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
This research will find out the reason for the short comings in the expectation of Business Studies educators and scholars in improving students academic performance in Business Studies. It will point out the important qualities of teachers (qualification use of teaching and learning aids, manipulation of the teaching environment and personality in enhancing a positive attitude in students towards Business Studies). Above all, this study will broaden the knowledge of Business Studies educators on the various problems and prospects of teaching Business Studies in secondary schools.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:
The problems in teaching Business Studies like any other subject have been attributed to the lack of materials for teaching, sometimes some teachers are not qualified to teach the subject. In some cases however, there are qualified teachers but they lack the necessary teaching materials without, which efforts, become futile. Also sometimes the student or learner are rather not interested in the subject and hence they perform below expectation.
It is worthy to note that the method of teaching employed by the teacher may render the subject uninteresting. This is simply because, a good teacher with a bad method of teaching gets a poor result. This study investigates both the Problem and Prospects of teaching Business Studies.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION:
The following research question will serve as a guide to the study.
1. What method does teachers use to teach Business Studies to students?
2. What are the students attitudes towards learning of Business Studies?
3. What are the instructional materials available for teaching Business Studies?
4. What are the necessary qualifications for teaching Business Studies?
5. What are the necessary experiences needed for teaching Business Studies?
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
The scope of the study will cover the whole spectrum of business teaching, learners attitude to the subject, the methodology of teaching, teachers qualification, experience, the types and uses of textbooks in the classroom.
The study is delimited to secondary schools in Shomolu Local Government. This is due to the fact that such needs easy collection of data and analysis as well as to reduce cost.
1.6 SAMPLING DESIGN AND PROCEDURE:
This research is aimed at finding out the Problems and Prospects of Teaching Business Studies in Secondary Schools, therefore the sampling population will include secondary school students and teaches in some selected schools in Shomolu Local Government Areas of Lagos State.
1.7 DEFINTION OF TERMS:
1.BUSINESS: The study of the management of individuals organizing to maintain collective productivity toward accomplishing particular creative and productive goals (usually to generate profit).
2.TECHNIQUES: Is the process by which the learner is associated with the learning task by the teacher, techniques are generally used within a method. They form part of a method of approaching a topic.
3.METHOD: It is the way in which people are organized in order to conduct an educational activity with the purpose of achieving a set goal.
4.TEACHING: This is simply the process of impacting knowledge, it means the process of giving instruction to somebody or causes somebody to know or be able to do something.
5.PROBLEM: It is something difficult to deal with or understand.
6.PROSPECT: It is the possibility of something occurring or chances for success.