Production and Determination of Functional Properties of Plantain Flour
Plantains (Musa EPP) are important staple foods, which make substantial contribution of the nutrition and economy of millions of people through the developing world and are grown in 720 countries. The gross value of plantain production in sub-saharan Africa extent that of several other main food crops, such as maize, rice cassava and sweet potato. They are considered the fourth important global food commodity after rice, milk and wheat in terms of gross value of production and provide more than 25% of the carbohydrates for approximately 70 million people in sub-sharan Africa. Plantain flour production involves procurement of matured plantain, feeling, chipping, drying, milling and packaging, plantain is an important source of carbohydrate, the starch fat and total sugars in plantain are adequate for the manufacture of plantain biscuit. Blanding considerably reduce the emulsion capacity and viscosity, while built density, water and oil absorption capacities were increased by blanding. Plantain could also be used as an emulsifier and thickner in food system. Plantain flour is a cheap source of iron, protein and vitamin A and the product can be marketed.
Plantain is a common name for a herbaceous plants of the genus Dusa, it was classified formally as Musa Acuminata, Musa Balbisoana or Hybrids Musa Acuminataz Balbisoana depending on their genomic constitution. (balell John in 2000) Gare the archaic scientific name Musa paradisiacal which is no longer used,. Most plantain come from the hybrid AAB and ABB cultural group all members of the genus. Musa are indigenous to tropical regions of South east Asia and Oceania including the making Archipelago. (Brian and Allan 1985).
Plantains are a major staple food in Equatorial Africa and Andean region. Their attractiveness as food is that they fruit all year round making them more reliable all season. This is particularly important for communities living in mountains or forests with Inadequate food storage, preservation and transportation, this tends to be firmer and lower in sugar content than desert, plantains are cooked or otherwise processed and are used either when green or unripe land therefore starchy or overripe and therefore sweet (William 1979) stated that an average plantain has about 220 calories and is a good source of potassium and dietary fibre. (Murray Tossler 1987).
Plantains is a perennial plant that consist of a rosette of basal leaves and one or more flowering stalks the basal leaves are up to “10 long and ¾ across”, “but more commonly about half this size the tenth most important staple food that feed the world. (Uwaegbufe 1996) plantains are treated in much as the same way as potatoes and with a similar neutral flavour and texture when this unripe fruit is looked by steaming boiling or trying. It (plantain) fruits all year round which making the crop a reliable all season staple, food, particularly in developing countries with inadequate food storage, preservation and transportation technologies, in Africa plantains provide more than 25 percent of the carbohydrate requirement for over 70 million people. Plantain can be eaten raw as well. As it ripen it becomes sweeter and changes colour from green to yellow to black, green plantain are firm and starchy and they resemble potatoes in flavour. UNCST 2007) the yellow plantains are softer and starchy, but sweet. Extremely ripe plantains have softer deep yellow pulp that is much sweeter than the earlier stages of ripeness. (Archy 1987).
Plantains in the yellow to black stages can be used in sweet dishes steam-looked plantains are considered a nutritious food for infants and the elderly. A ripe plantain is used as food for infants at wearing. Ut is mashed with a pinch of salt and is believed to be more easily digestible (FAOSTAT 2011). Plantains are also dried and grouped into flour it is an important food stuff that constitute, water of about 1062%, proteins 55%, Fat 1.15%. Carbohydrates 81.6% and Ash 3.01%. Dried plantain provider is mixed with a little fennel seed powder and boiled either in milk or water to feed small children till they age of 1yr. (Oke 1998) stated that in Southern parts of Indian Roots and tubers, plantains, and bananas is good for human nutrition.
Plantain has been a good source of food and known to different countries with different names like, in Ivory Coast where plantains are dishes when fried with Onion and tomato sauce and serve to eat. It is called ALOCO. It is also used for a dish called Magu in Dominican Republic, where the green plantains are peeled smashed with hot water and boiled then served with sauce. In West Africa plantains are served for eating with stew or beans or any food when fried it is known as BODO (Dough-Bough) (Forcylth 1988). Plantains are also known as fufu De plantain a popular dish in Cuba where the plantains are boiled and mixed with chicken stock and sauce and the served. Plantains can also be fried twice and served as a side appetizer or snack in countries like Columbia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Panama. It is known as potacones. The popular known food Broil is usually made in Nigeria, whereby plantain is roacted and eaten with red oil sauce. (Adnan and Muyalia 1984).
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
(i) To produce plantain flour
(ii) To determine the functional properties of plantain flour.