PRODUCTION OF “OGIRI” FROM SOYABEAN USING MICRO ORGANISM RESPONSIBLE FOR FERMENTATION OF CASTOR BEANS SEED “OGIRI”
Microorganisms associated in fermentation of castor bean seeds “ogiri” (COSO) were investigated. Organisms isolated include micrococcus, Bacillus and proteus. Soya bean paste was produced and divided into three portions, one portion was inoculated with the pure culture from castor bean seed “ogiri” the second portion was inoculated with castor bean seed “ogiri” (COSO) the rd part, the control was left without inoculation. Each of the three portions was subdivided into two to produce salted and non salted samples, and coded as SPCS (say pure culture salted) and SPCUS (Soy pure culture unsalted), SCOS (say wild fermented salted salted) and SWFUS (say wild fermented unsalted). Using Hedonic scale, a 9 – man untrained panelists, were used to conduct sensory evaluation on the raw “ogiri”and “ogiri” with 7.5 point followed by the SCOUS with 7 points.
There was no significant difference at 1% and 5% level for the sensory evaluation carried out.
“Ogiri” is a local condiment inform of oily paste with strong putrial and ammoniacal odour made from some fermentation vegetable proteins (oil seeds).
It is a popular soup condiment in many parts of Nigeria particularly in Enugu Anambra, Imo,Ondo River states, Benue-plateau states.
“Ogiri” can be in various form such as solid, semi solid (paste) depending on the type of raw material (legume seed) used in the production of it.
Hwever, when it is in solid form, it can be put into shapes like circlus (flat) triangular and quadrilaterals.
Types of Ogiri are dawadawa “Iru,” “Ogiri, nwan,” “Igba – Apara,” “Ukpaka (ugba)”, “Ogiri – sara” onwuka (2003).
However, “dawadawa” and “Ogiri” are used as condiments in soup, sauce and porridge and ogiri act as soup “dawadawa” and ogiri act as soup condiments as well as food flavour. “Ugba” (ukpaka) is commonly used to supplement a variety of food in the eastern (especially Anambra and Imo) States of Nigeria, it is frequently mixed with yam or with tapioca (Abacha) and also with stock – fish and serve during important ceremonies. Some people even it those flavoring agents raw as they are.
In Nigeria and in some African countries, people who use ogiri as flavouring agent are only concerned in the nutritive value of the ogiri not minding their microbial load. Although a food will not be selected volubility and consumed less it appeals to the consumer in terms of appearance mouthfeel and flavour (ogbo V.N (1999). Though ogiri has an unwelcoming flavour and an unattractive presentation (ogbou V.M), yet its addition to food as spaces makes the food very palatable.
Most of these condiment used as flavouring agent content vegetable proteins which are usually rich in glutamine and asparagine and these can either be enzymatically or chemically hydrolyzed to glutamic acid and aspartic acid by microorganisms other products of the hydrolysis are Alanine Arginine and proline (Obi E.I.2003). The delaminated proteid has a lower isoelectric point and therefore are are easily soluble in foods systems ogbogu (1999), it has also been reported that levels of deamination as low as 2-6% could enhance the functional properties of these amino acids.
Ihekoronye and Ngoddy (1985) stated that the functional properties of these amino acids as giving nice flavour to food.
The processing of the oil seeds is still at the traditional level. The procedure differs slightly in different locations.
Most of the lettable protein seeds used in preparation of this traditional condiment logo red are castor bean (Ricinus communis), oil bean (pentaclethra macrophylla), sesame seed (sesamum indicum), soya bean (Glycine max) etc.
Some of them which contain toxic substances example Ricin in castor oil beans inhibitor from soya bean are detoxified during processing to avoid an unpleasant effects they cause.
However, castor bean seed cause irritation in the mouth, throat and stomach also vomiting.
Soya bean has a bitter taste and similar processing method such as fermentation, heating and boiling are required prepare them for food use.
Wherever fermentation is involved in processing food, microorganisms are present. The term fermentation is an energy yielding metabolic process that involves the decomposition of carbohydrate in the absences of oxygen.
Lois pastent stated that physiological process permitting certain organism to live and grow in the absence of air is referred to as anaerobic fermentation which in the preserve of oxygen it is called aerobic fermentation. Nweke A.E (1999) reported that fermented foods are those in which their production depend on the activities of microorganism.
Microorganisms play an important role in modifying the substrates physically, sensory and nutritionally (Aweke 1999).
Members of fermenting organisms are important; for instance, Bacillus and coagulates negotiable the fermented (strullu vulgarist and)(Ricinus communis) seed in ogiri preparation; Ogbogu (1999) and African oil bean seed in ugba preparation, prosopis Africana for the preparation of okpechi a seasoning agent temper an Indonesian fermented vegetable protein food prepared from soybean in which Bacillus spp have been found to be responsible for the fermentation.
These organisms have some properties that enable them to ferment these substrate some of these properties are made available by the organisms themselves as metabolic product in the living organisms or as a component of the endotoxin released when the organism is already dead.
Some of them can be proteolytic their action while some lipolytic, others amylolytic ogbogu, V.N. However, they confirmed the work of Barber let al the (1987) as he classified Bacillus subtilis which he found in (dawadawa) as being amylolytic in its action.
Thus, the aim of this work is to identify and isolate microorganisms involved in the fermentation of castor seed bean “ogiri” and the of use the pure isolate in fermentation soy paste as well as seeing how best the product resemble the already existing ogiri.