PRODUCTION OF SLOW BURNING CANDLE
The project was carried out to produce slow burning candle for domestic uses. The project was carried out using the following apparatus;
Reactor [20 litres in volume], bussen, Beaker (400ml) and wick.
The chemical/raw material used in the production are wax, wick, cathyl alcohol, white colourant and steanic acid.
The general processes was used and of involves blending, heating (i.e endothermic reaction and followed by casting process which is the most interesting part in the processes.
The effectiveness of the candle produced were tested by carrying our an experiment to see the rate of burning of the ore with stearic acid, and cethyl alcohol and that without these.
The various readings were recorded.
It was shown that if lower carbon content type of wick proved the ideal for candle making, in other not to cause adversely effect on human beings and reduce air pollution as a result of burning the candle.
TABLE OF CONTENT
HISTORY OF CANDLE MAKING
WAXES AND MAJOR TYPES OF WAXES
WICKS AND MAJOR TYPES OF WICKS
ADDITIVES TO THE WAX FOR CANDLE PRODUCTION
EQUIPMENTS AND RAW MATERIALS USED
CHARACTERIZATION OF CANDLE PRODUCED
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The production of candle that burns slowly continue to be one of the largest consumer of petroleum wax (paraffin wax). While man’s progress in providing artificial illumination which reduces the demand of candle, its (portability) self contained sources of light continues to increase its demand. The utilitarian use, along with religious and decorative needs of slow burning candle makes the consumption of paraffin wax to more up to 60 million 16 weight monthly in Nigeria.
Simple as candle that burns slowly appear, its successful performance involves many factors which includes the environment which the candle is been produced and to be used, the type of wax used in the production, the wick used and the additive chemicals used in the production such as stearic acid and cethyl alcohol which provides the characteristic slow burning.
Structurally slow burning candle is made up of a porous, combustible wick surrounded by a fusible flammable solid (that is the wax).
Due to the various uses of candle in the country, the need arises for its production from locally and with a domestic source.
This project was designed towards providing alternative sources/ways for the production of slow burning candle and this will in very large measure aid in minimizing, if not stopping entirely, the present important syndrome which does not only constitute a severe drawn on our economy but has also turn our country into a dumping ground for low quality candles in Nigeria. Also the project will create job opportunities for the candle producers in the country.
HISTORY OF CANDLE MAKING
For centuries, candles have cast a light on man’s progress. However, there is very little known about the origin of candles. Although it is often written that the first candles were developed by the Ancient Egyptians who used rushlights, or loreles made by soaking the pitty core of reads in molten tallow, the rush lights had no wick like a candle.
It is the Romans who are credited with developing wick candle, using it to aid their travelers at night or dark, and lighting homes and palce of worship at night and even at day.
Like the early Egyptians, the Romans relief on tallow, gathered from cattle or sheep suit, as the principal ingredient of candles. It was not until the middle ages when bees wax, a substance secreted by honey bees to make their honey combs was introduced. Bees wax candles were a marked improvement over those made with fallow, for they did not produce a smoky flame or enit an acid odour when burned. However, they were expensive and therefore were affordable only for wealthy ones.
During the 19th century, when most major development affecting contemporary candle making occurred. In 1834, inventor Joseph Morgan introduced a machine which allowed continuous production of molded candles by the use of a cylinder which featured a movable piston that can eject candles as they solidified.
Further development in candle making occur is 1850 with the production of paraffin wax made from candle oil and coal shale. They are processed by distilling the residue left after crude petroleum was refined, the bluish-white wax was found to burn clearly, and with no unpleasant odour of great significance was its cost because paraffin wax was more economical produced than any preceding candle wax or fuel developed. And while paraffin’s low melting point may have posed a threat to its popularity, the discovery of stearic acid solved this problem. Hard and durable, stearic acid was being produced in quantity by the end of the 19thcentury. By this period, most candle being manufactured consisted of paraffin and stearic acid.
With the introduction of the light bulb in 1879, canle making decnied until the turn of century when a renewed popularity for candles emerged. Candle manufacturing was further enhanced during the first half of the 20th century through the growth of united states oil and meat packing industries. With the increase of crude oil and meat productions, also came an increase in the by-products that are the basic ingredients of contemporary candles-paraffin and stearic acid.
No longer man’s major source of light, candle continue to grow in popularity and use. Today, candles symbolize celebration, mark romance, define ceremony, and accent decor rationing the cast a warm glow for all to enjoy.
This work was aimed at developing an economical and indigenous way of producing candle using home made raw materials in the best interest of small-scale industries thereby conserving their foreign exchange earnings.
But in Nigeria over ninety percent of the candle in use were imported either as finished or semi-finished product. Even the very little produced locally are still based on synthetic raw materials which are also imported. This is rather unfortunate considering that that numerous natural sources locally available from which the basic raw materials for the production of candle can be obtained.
In cognizance of these facts, it becomes necessary and indeed of paramount importance that alternative sources of raw material be sought and if these raw material become locally available in commercial quantities and at reasonable cost, it should be processed to achieve certain rechness and natural character in candle that burns slowly.