Home » 2015 WAEC Animal Husbandry Theory (a)       Discuss the management of goats under the following headings: (i)  breeding; (ii) care of…

Animal Husbandry Theory (a)       Discuss the management of goats under the following headings: (i)  breeding; (ii) care of…

(a)       Discuss the management of goats under the following headings:
(i)  breeding;
(ii) care of kids;
(iii) identification;
(iv) castration

Explanation

(a)   Management of goats

            (i)         Breeding

  • Goats should be bred when they are at least 8-9 months old for the male and 12-15 months for the female/attainment of puberty
  • Unwanted males should be castrated or disposed of while good    
  • males are retained
  • Males should be separated from females at weaning stage where
  • possible
  • Female should be flushed before mating
  • One buck can mate eighteen to twenty five does
  • Signs of heat should be identified/observed

(ii)        Care of kids

  • Clean the mucous membrane when the kid is born
  • Dip navel of the kid in Iodine solution
  • Provide warmth when necessary
  • Ensure that kids suckle or are provided with colostrum
  • Provide foster mother or milk substitute if necessary
  • Introduce kids to solid feed/weaning at six to eight weeks
  • Provide creep feed
  • Provide salt lick
  • Maintain proper sanitation
  • Undertake routine medication/vaccination
  • Isolate sick animals
  • Castrate kids not required for breeding
  • Isolate dam and kid from the herd to avoid trampling
  • Separate kids from dams during grazing periods

(iii)       Identification

  • Determine the appropriate identification method e.g. ear notching,    
  • ear tagging, neck chaining, collar paint, branding, body/hair cutting
  • Ensure proper record of animals for breeding, culling, selection,
  • medication purposes
  • Inspect the animals regularly to ensure that their identification   
  • marks are intact
  • Replace lost identities/re-embossed faded marks
  • Prompt treatment of injuries that may arise during and after identification process

(iv)       Castration

  • Male kids not required for breeding should be castrated
  •  Castration should be done before four months old
  • Determine the type of castration to be carried out e.g. close castration,
  • using the burdizzo or elastrator or open castration, using sterilized sharp knife
  • or blade or scarpel
  • Isolate castrated goats from the herd for close monitoring
  • During the healing process ensure regular cleaning of the wound
  • with appropriate antiseptics
  • Administer prescribed drugs to goat after castration
  • Ensure that animal is kept on high plane of nutrition during the
  • period of castration
  • Supply clean water regularly
  • Ensure proper sanitation in pens where castrated goats are kept
  • Close monitoring of the animal to determine the effectiveness of
  • the castration