THE RATE OF ADSORPTION OF PALM OIL WITH BITUMINOUS COAL

ABSTRACT

This project was carried out using bituminous coal (non activated) and the degree of refining of palm oil at different temperature and time using spectrophotometer. This was carried out to check the effectiveness of bituminous coal sample (bleaching earth) as a bleaching agent for palm oil.
The coal (bituminous coal) was collected in lump forms, it was air-dried to remove any moisture content, size reduced to refining process.
In the refining process, 1000g of palm oil was weighed with weighing balance. It was then degummed with citric acid solution and neutralized with sodium hydroxide (NaoH) solution. During the process of degumming and neutralization, the residues were removed from the palm oil by allowing it to settle down in a separating funnel and opening the tap to allow the residue to run off. 100g of palm oil was measured with measuring cylinder into a conical flask, 10g of coal (bituminous coal) sample was weighed with meter. P163 weigh balance using pert dish. The coal contained in the Petri dish was added into the conical flask with the palm oil and stirred properly for about 10 minutes. Then it was transferred to water bath for the required temperature and time interval.
Later the coal sample was removed and filtered out with the aid of filter paper to obtain a filtrates. The experiment was performed for five temperature ie 1000c, 1500c,2000c, 2500c and 3000c and with time interval of 20 mins, 40mins, 60 mins, 80mins and 100mins. The colour change after bleaching was measured using spectrophotometer at 520 wavelength. It was noticed that as the temperature increases with time. The percentage colour reduction of the palm oil increases it the higher the palm oil becomes. It was noticed that for bituminous coal, the smaller the particle size of the coal, the higher the percentage colour reduction and percentage oil retention.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 OBJECTIVE/SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 ORIGIN OF PALM OIL
2.1 PROCESSING OF PALM OIL
2.2 PROPERTIES OF PALM OIL
2.3 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PALM OIL
2.3.1 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PALM OIL
2.4 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND
2.4.1 COMPONENTS OF PALM OIL
2.5 USES OF PALM OIL
2.6 HISTORY OF COAL
2.7 COAL FORMATION
2.8 PRODUCTION OF COAL
2.81 MINING
2.82 PREPARATION OF COAL
2.9 PROPERTIES OF COAL
2.91 RANK AND CLASSIFICATION OF COAL
2.92 COAL UTILIZATION
2.93 REFINING OF CRUDE PALM OIL
2.94 ADSORPTION
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE
3.1 THE RATE OF ADSORPTION OF PALM OIL WITH BITUMINOUS COAL
3.2 DETERMINATION OF THE COLOUR CHANGE
3.3 THE EFFECT OF STIRRING
CHAPTER FOUR
EXPERIMENTAL RESULT
CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION/RECOMMENDATION
REFERENCE
APPENDIX

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