REFINING OF VEGETABLE OIL WITH ENUGU COAL

ABSTRACT

This project was carried out using acid activated coal from Enugu coal and the production of vegetable oil was monitored using spectrophotometer to measure the absorbance. It was also perform to check the suitability of activated Enugu coal as a bleaching agent for palm oil.

The Enugu coal samples were collected, size reduced, carbonized and activated with acid (phosphoric Acid) before being used for the bleaching process. The bleaching process lasted for 40 minutes and it was absorbed that activated coal is a poor absorber of palm oil.

From the result obtained, it was observed t6hat at different temperature rang of 120oc, 150oc and 180oc of 10g of activated coal mixed with 100ml of palm oil, that the colour absorbance were 1.65, 1.2 and 0.4 respectively. The optimum amount of 10g at bleaching temperature of 180oc found to be the best for better bleaching.

It was observed that as the temperature increase, the percentage colour reduction of the oil increase. Beside, it was observed that the smaller the particle size of the activated coal samples, the higher their effect on the oil and the higher the percentage colour reduction.

TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 SCOPE/OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 HISTORY OF PALM OIL
2.1 PROCESSING OF PALM OIL
2.2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PALM OIL
2.2.1 CAROTENES
2.2.2 FATTY ACIDS
2.2.3 PHOSPHOLIPIDS (PHOSPHATIDES)
2.2.4 GUMS
2.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF PALM OIL
2.3.1 SPOILAGE FACTORS OF PALM OIL
2.3.2 PREVE4NRTIVE MEASURES
2.4 REFINING OF CRUDE PALM OIL
2.4.1 DEGUMMING
2.4.2 NEUTRALISATION
2.4.3 BLEACHING
2.4.4 BLEACHABILITY OF PALM OIL
2.4.5 CHEMICAL BLEACHING
2.4.6 AERATION BLEACHYING
2.4.7 BLEACHING BY ADSORPTION
2.5.0 ADSORPTION
2.5.1 TYPES OF ADSORPTION
2.52 APPLI8CATION OF ADSORPTION PROCESS
2.53 NATURE OF ADSORBENT
2.5.4 STRUCTURE OF ADSORBENT
2.5.5 ADSORPTION EQUIPMENT
2.6 COAL AS AN ADSORBENT
2.6.1 MECHANISM OF COAL FORMATION
2.7 TYPES OF COAL AND ITS PROPERTIES
2.7.1 COAL RANK AND CLASSIFICATION BY RANK
2.7.2 CLASSIFICATION OF COAL
2.7.3 PROPERTIES OF COAL COMMONLY
USED IN CLASSIFICATION
2.7.4 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OFT COAL
2.7.5 CAKING ANDR COKING PROPERTIES
2.76 CALORIFIC VALUE
2.77 ACTIVATED CARBON
2.78 CHEMICAL PROPERTIESOF COAL
2.79 COAL CARBONIZATION
2.80 ADSORPTION PARAMETERS OF ACTIVATED CARBON
CHAPTER THREE EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
3.10 MATERIAL TREATEMENT
3.11 CARBONIZATION OF COAL
3.12 COAL ACTIVATED
3.13 PERCENTAGE APPEARENT POPOSITY OF ACTIVATED COLA
3.34 TREATMENT OF PALM OIL
3.15 BLEACHING OPERATTION
3.16 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON BLEACHING
3.17 EFFECT OF PARTICLE SWIZE ON BLEACHING
3.18 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BLEACHING OIL
TEST FOR SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST FOR ACID VALUE
TEST FOR SAPONIFICATION VALUE
TEST FOR IODINE VALUE
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 EXPERIMENNTAL RESULT
4.1 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON BLEACHING
SPECIFIC GRAVITY VALUE
ACID VALUE
SAPONIFICATION VALUE
IODINE VALUE
CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 DISCUSSION
5.2 CONCLUTION/RECOMMENDATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Nigeria is one of the countries of the world richly blessed with weather favorable for the growth of palm tree, the major source of palm oil.

Research and studies over the years helped in the improvement of the quantity of palm oil and transforming it into a high quality vegetable oil which is one of the aims of this project work. The oil is basically used for cooking and soap making. It may also be used for magazines and vegetable ghee, for shortening in pastries and bread, for pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, as a lubricant and emulsion for insecticides and as a fuel for diesel engines. However, the extraction of palm oil from its palm fruits have been a major concern. Thanks to advancement in technology that have always preferred solution to save of reeds. Apart from the tradition of palm oil, there is an improved method of extraction of palm oil which include :sterilization, threshing or stripping, milling and digestion, processing/pressing and clarification and finally drying to reduce the content of water.

Moreso, Enugu coal play important role in the extraction of palm oil as an adsorbent material. Adsorption is a very important process in this project, Enugu coal playing the role in refining of palm oil. Refining operation here include neutralizing of free fatty acid, using sodium hydroxide, bleaching to improve flavour and stability which is the major work of Enugu coal and deodorizing to remove odour.

1.1 SCOPE/OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

The objective of this project is to develop the technology of producing vegetable oil with Enugu coal and how to improve the efficiency of the adsorptive ability of Enugu coal. Besides comparing the effect of temperature on bleaching of palm oil, effect of particle size and regenerated coal is very essential.