THE RELEVANCE OF PACKAGING IN THE MARKETING OF CONSUMER GOODS IN NIGERIA (A Case Study of PZ Industries Plc, Aba)
This research is on the importance of packaging of consumer good in Nigeria. Where by to find out the packaging strategies, understand the meaning, possibilities, advantages and effect of modern packaging structure in modern Nigeria market. This work covers the five chapters on deals with the introduction, background of the study, statement of the problems, purpose of study research question, scope and limitation of the study. Chapter two came up with the literature review which takes about various approaches to the definition of packaging importance strategy, social influence etc. chapter four explained the presentation and analysis of data hypothesis and decision findings. While chapter five is all about summary of findings recommendations and conclusion, after investigation and data analysis the findings stand the well articulated and designed packaging increase the sales volume of an organization.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page = = = = = = = i
Approval Page = = = = = = = ii
Dedication = = = = = = = iii
Acknowledgement = = = = = = iv
Abstract = = = = = = = = v
Table of Content = = = = = = vi
1.0 Introduction = = = = = = 1-2
1.1 Background of the Study = = = = 3
1.2 Statement of the Problems = = = 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study = = = = 5
1.4 Research Question = = = = = 6
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis = = = = 7
1.6 Significance of the Study = = = 8
1.7 Scope of the Study = = = = = 8
1.8 Limitation of the Study = = = = 9-10
2.0 Literature Review = = = = = 11
2.1 Introduction = = = = = = 11-12
2.2 Various Approaches to the Definition of the Term
Packaging = = = = = = = 13-16
2.3 Planning the Packaging = = = = 17
2.4 The Right Packaging = = = = = 18
2.5 Societal Influence on Packaging = = 19-22
2.6 Important of Packaging = = = = 23-25
2.7 Product Strategies = = = = = 26
2.8 The Problem And Criticisms
Against Packaging = = = = = 26-27
2.9 Reference = = = = = 28
3.0 Research Methodology = = = = 29
3.1 Introduction = = = = = = 29
3.2 Research Design = = = = = 29
3.3 Sources/Methods of Data Collection = 30
3.4 Population and Sample Size = = = 31
3.5 Sample Technique = = = = = 32
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Measuring
Instrument = = = = = = 32
3.7 Method of Data Analysis = = = = 33
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data = = 34
4.1 Introduction = = = = = = 34
4.2 Presentation of Data = = = = 35
4.3 Analysis of Data = = = = = 35-42
4.4 Test of Hypothesis = = = = = 43-49
4.5 Interpretation of Results = = = = =50
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 51
5.1 Introduction = = = = = = 51
5.2 Summary of Findings = = = = 51
5.3 Conclusion = = = = = = 52
5.4 Recommendations = = = = = 53
References = = = = = = 54
Appendix = = = = = = = 55
In the world of marketing packaging of product is a very and vital name of no doubt. Play a significant role in effective marketing of product especially consumer goods. In marketing a consumer is said to be kind and as such, much effort is made to draw the attention of this king to every individual firm.
Many firms have confirmed that packaging has been playing and inestimable role on consumer perception and selection retention.
Packaging has now become a distinct areas study in the marketing department of some universities like Michigan state university. Rochester institute of technology and others certain mechanical devices are presently in use to determine or final use its critical protect it against all external forces that may be acting on the product while in transit despite that a product needs to be adequately packaged organizations need not to over package their products.
The packages to the product do not only perform protective functions it also provide some promotional functions.
According to Okafor and Ugiagba (2004:187-88) said that even before organization started the packaging of their products packaging has already being in existence. God in his creation gave an initial package to the following: Tomatoes, Mangoes, eggs, onions, oranges, carrots, cabbage, maize etc.
By his actions, God highlighted the importance of product packaging. Packaging can be thought of as a system of building blocks. The smallest size units are the retail or consumer packages or cartons one seas on the shelves of stores. The building block hierarchy is important to remember because each of the different building block is inside one another and their total effect must be to protect the product.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to Kottler P. (1993:237) many marketer thus product pricing promotion and packaging that make up marketing thus product pricing promotion and packaging that make up marketing elements of the firm.
Also, technology and civilization have their own impact as regards the state of the product packaging care Product Company like PZ cusson industry unit ever etc. Employ high technology equipment and techniques in the design and production of product packages. However, of the two companies maintained above, PZ cusson industry Plc, Aba firms the reference point. It is used on seeking to know and express the factor that are essential in modern product packaging techniques and as well find out the impact of product packaging on the volume of sales of this firms.
Joy toilet soap and elephant blue detergent are two different product altogether although they do almost the same work.
The product of toilet soap or soaps generally is known as specification which is the reaction between caustic soda and oil to provide soap which is been processed with chemicals like titanium dioxide that make it soft skin mild tender and gentle on both the skin and fabrics.
The importance of packaging being carried out by researchers inform of wrapper or carton container plays an important role in the marketing of consumer goods, marketing companies and as well as the consuming community to identify suitable package for them to undertake further market research to identify more packaging materials and process.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Many packaging strategies has been adopted 3d by PZ Cusson in resent years leading to a proliferation of this category of packaging it is really necessary to find out and evaluate the extent of the effect of this proliferation on marketing of consumer products. The problem of this study posed as question includes;
- How effective are packaging in the marketing to consumer product.
- The right material to be most appropriately use for packaging and be able to withstand competition.
- How to use packaging to minimize damage.
- How effective is packaging as a tool to increase sales volume.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
In the world of business which takes place in dynamic and competitive environment, packaging has assumed a major and auxicillary role of conformity and profitability of every consumer product growing concern therefore, the extent to which packaging as an important tool, affect the marketing of consumer goods.
The following were in this research work.
- To verify whether packaging plays a significant role on sales volume and profitability.
- To identify whether packaging serves the purpose of appeal to consumers.
- To verify whether packaging creates utility of consumer goods.
- To verify whether those firms consider packaging a major determinant of product identification on the marketing or their goods.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The questions stated below were below were postulated for verification in this study;
- What influence has packaging on sales volume and profitability?
- What is the role of packaging in creating utility product definition, storage and dispensing.
- Does packaging ease the problem of product identification during purchase?
- Are packaging strategies of different consumer packaged goods of PZ Cusson Plc flexible enough to accommodate the numerous types of product in our economy?
- Does competition influences the use of packaging on sales volume.
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
The following hypotheses have been generated for this study.
They are as follows:
- Ho: Null Hypothesis
There is no positive influence of packaging on sales volume.
H1: Alternative Hypothesis
There is a positive influence of packaging on sales volume.
- Ho: Null Hypothesis
Competition does not influence the use of packaging on sales volume.
H1: Alternative Hypothesis
Competitions influence the use of packaging on sales volume.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study in now operant having early defined and ambiguously stated the problems.
Therefore, the private objective of this project is sign lift the importance and role of packaging. In manufacturing industries and of consumer good in Nigeria.
Again to see that objective is not only of cost reduction but planning acquisition conversion flow and distribution of production material achieved in industries with particular reference to PZ industries Plc Aba.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work is cantered around Aba in Abia state where PZ industries plc the case study is operating behaviour around Aba, because of constraints to time allowed to complete the research work and inadequate fund available to finance the work the areas of emphasis include the importance of packaging and its contribution to the organization (PZ Industries Plc Aba).
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study was confirmed with some constraints below are some of the factors that delay the progress and each completion of this work.
Time: This work would have been better than what it is enough time was given to travel to different part of the country and companies for collection of data.
Transportation: Due to high cost of transportation fares caused by bad roads it was not possible to travel to different parts of the country in collection of more data.
Lack of Materials: The unavailability of goods and up-to date textbooks, journals etc. libraries and inaccessibility of the internet to the common man also hampered the progress of this work.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
For clarity of purpose, the following terms are defined package: This means the activities of designing and producing container or wrapper for a product identification and protection against damage spoilage and theft.
Perception: This is a complex process by which people select organize and interpret sensory stimulation into meaningful and coherence picture.
Marketing: As human activities directed as satisfying human needs and wants through exchange processes.
Strategy/Strategic Planning: The process of determining the objective of an organization, the adoption of course of action and the allocation of resources necessary to achieve those objective like packaging objectives.
Going Concern: Business organization/firm that active in operation not merely planned.
Technology: Study mastery and utilization of manufacturing methods and industrials acts systematic application of knowledge to practical task in industry.
Technique: Method of going something expertly technologically or mechanically skill in art.
Industry: Being employed in trade manufacturing distribution and commerce.
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