The Role of Industrial Training Scheme on the Development of Manpower in Selected Business Establishment in Anambra State


The topic of this research is the role of industrial Training scheme on the Development of manpower in selected business Establishment in Anambra state. At the time of writing this project, five companies Ibeto Group of Company and Premier Brewery Onitsha, ITF area office Awka, Lento Aluminum Company Awka and Nigeria Brewery Onitsha were sampled for the survey. In collecting the data for this research, the instrument used were the questionnaire. The need for business establishment to embark on industrial training was introduced. The researcher found out that the employers of labour witness work improvements of workers trained with ITF training programmes. The researcher recommended that the training programmes of ITF should be wide enough to cover the specific need of the contributing company. From the analysis of the data collected, the researcher found out that ITF is doing a good job though it has some problems hindering its progress. The research ended up in concluding, summarizing and putting up a number of recommendations for further studies.



1.1     Background to the Study

Some years back, the concept of training and development of manpower in some business establishment were vaguely understood in most of our developing countries. This was supported by Dr. Akinku in his book “Nigeria Today” when he said; we are yet to find out what it is, are the 4m’s absent in our midst. All efforts to improve on our productivity yield no result. Referring to his 4m’s, he meant Man, Materials, Machines and Money.

With the turn of events, and increased awareness both the developed and developing countries have come to appreciate the problem of employee development and training in many organizations.

In his inaugural lecture on supervisor management training course. Layemo said that the basic problem of developing countries is not lack of natural resource but the underdevelopment of their human/manpower resources.

In a similar perspective, Eze in his book” sources of management motivation”, showed that manpower in the third world countries are underdeveloped.

In support of this, a report by Ashby of (1959:58) showed that manpower resources in the third world countries were still developing.

Following Ashby’s recommendation, the National manpower Board was established in 1962. As a follow up, the manpower in 1963 undertook a comprehensive manpower survey which brought to governments notice the following.

  1. The quality of management in all level is one of the major problems of economic development.
  2. The need for effective co-ordination to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts in manpower training.

In 1969, the International Labour Organization (ILO) emphasized the inadequate of manpower development programmes in Nigeria which was necessary for her to carry out her economic development plan occasioned by the civil war, hence the need for rehabilitations, required to develop technical and progression of manpower training.

The second National manpower development plan (1970:74) also said that there was high level of incompetence in positions in our industries and it identified the following factors as being responsible for it

  1. Inadequacy of education and professional qualification
  2. Poor quality of employees
  3. Inadequate experience.

Irrespective of these poor quality skilled manpower, employers have neglected the need to train their workers for increased productivity and efficiency of their work. The federal government create industrial training fund in 1971 by decree No 47 and its main objective is to promote and encourage the acquisition of skills with a view to generate a pool of indigenous trained manpower sufficient to meet the developing needs of the country.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

As stated earlier, the setting up of the industrial training fund has the central objective of promoting and encouraging the acquisition of skills in industry and commerce. In essence, the ITF is expected to provide high quality personnel to man our manpower resource/organization. ITF always claim in its bulletin to have done a lot to meet manpower development needs of co-operation from employees of labour who need the training.

Their complaint entails

Nonpayment of contributions by contributing companies.

Some organizations fail to patronize them in their industrial training programme.

1.3     Purpose of the Study

This study aims at investigating the activities of IF with a view to access the impact of its training programme on manpower development in the country. It would also see if there is justification for the little enthusiasm and greater criticism being leveled on the ITF, in view of the above, the purpose of the study include:

  1. To ascertain whether ITF meets the training needs of the contributing companies.
  2. To determine the extent at which ITF’s training effect the acquisition of skills of its participant.
  3. To identify the place of industrial training in achieving organizational objective.

1.4     Research Question

The study sought answer to the following questions.

  1. To what extent does ITF meets the training needs of the contributing companies?
  2. To what extent does ITF training affect the acquisition of skills of its participants?
  3. What is the place of industrial training in achieving organizational objective?

1.5     Significance of the Study

This study when successfully completed will be immense important to employees of labour in order to know the quality and effect of industrial training programmes offered by ITF. It will be of importance to government to know how the fund has been fairing and make recommendations where necessary.

It will also enable non-contributing companies or non member to know the skill content of the fund and decided whether the fund is living up to expectation.

The analysis will act as a catalyst in funding remedies to operational problem of the fund thereby providing solutions where it is lacking.

1.6     Scope of the Study

The scope of the study covers the roles of industrial training scheme on the development of manpower in business establishment in Anambra State

1.7     Definition of Terms

It is pertinent to note that meaning of some words in a research of this kind misconstrued, therefore, there is need to define some special terms or words used in this regard to avoid misinterpretation.

ITF: Industrial Training Fund, it is a government established body that sees for the industrial training of students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

MANPOWER: They are workforce employed or hired in a business establishment to perform day to day activities, and rendering services to the public to maximize profit for business establishment.

TRAINING: This is a key factor in enhancing the efficiency and expertise of the workforce.

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING: It is a mandatory programme designed by Industrial Training Fund to bridge the gap in the academic curriculum and in the industry which helps students to develop skills and competencies they require to become employable.



2.0     Introduction

Literature review serves as a theoretical base for understanding the concept and subject matters of any research work of this nature. According to Drucker, P. (1967). there is the need to review some related and previous work on the study as a necessary tools in trying to grab the concept and the contribution of various authors. The literature review consequently will help to appreciate the nature, the task, and increase the understanding and purpose of the study.

The specific objectives are as follows:

  1. To ascertain whether ITF meets the training needs of the contributing companies.
  2. To determine the extent at which ITF’s training effect the acquisition of skills of its participant.
  3. To identify the place of industrial training in achieving organizational objective.

How ITF meets the training needs of the contributing companies.

Most employers of labour have luke-warm attitude towards training. According to Carl Jung (1954), he feels that there has been training for supervisors and managers in workshops for long tome which have improved their productivity.

It will not be required from the above that something is wrong, either with the employers or trainees or even method of training.

A careful observation will reveal that most of our training programmes are based on the orthodox assumption that inefficiency of our economy are mostly due to shortage of skilled power. This led to the recommendation by government for various training institutions to train workers to operative, technical, commercial, financial and managerial areas.

Manshion and Myers (1991:7) in their own opinion of this study say that efficiency can be achieved by inferring from skilled manpower. Hence, industrial training is necessary. Employers should be meant to realize their duty in training programmes of upgrading and training manpower in various departments.

There is the need to put pressure on the employers to assume greater responsibilities because the building of modern nation depends upon the development of people and the organization of human activity capital and natural resources as they all play important role in economic growth but none is more important than manpower.

It is pertinent to note that all organizations can run their own training school, in a bid to assist them in organizing training for their staff; industrial training fund was established in 1971 by decree No 47. In spite of the establishment, organizations that do not or do have their own training school are given reimbursement for each course approved by the fund.

The extent at which ITF’s training affects the acquisition of skills of its participant.

Industrial training fund- All policies in organization are supposedly aimed at achieving the goals and objectives for which these organizations were established. The twin concept of industrial training and development seldom escape the intellectual reporters or organizational policies formulators in their bid to design effective programme for eventual goal.

There is apparently a general inclination of organizational policy makers towards assuming a functional relationship between employee training and development programmes and the potential performance of the prospective beneficiaries of such programmes. The above claim, that a functional relationship between training and effective performance of trainees has acquired such theoretical solidification that it has become impossible to make any empirical disputation over it.

Although three appear to be a universal acceptance of the idea that training and development enhances performance, only few of the many types of training programmes have been subjected to extensive research.

Types of Industrial Training and Development Technique

Various industrial training and employee development performance. These techniques aimed towards the same objective of improving production and efficiency. The impact of industrial training and development are manifested in the obvious content of skills, knowledge and attitude. These are acquired after the employee has been trained and developed in relation to organizational functional performance pattern.

One of the training techniques that help in ascertaining the impact of training on workers performance is the “Game techniques” Kibee and Craft, (1961) explained it as a dynamic training exercise utilizing a model of a business situation. Merit and Wheldall (1978), believed that game place, the modification will enhance the relative change in both the individual attitudes, skill and knowledge about his job activities. A game technique provides the participants with basic ideas of operating and policy decision are required in the real situation in the work place. This technique provides active participation in some, what life like situation with the opportunity for feed back of the consequences of one’s decision. The participant should learn which key factors to observe in the actual on the job situations, their attention should focus on establishing policies or strategies and on long-range planning. On the job training, this technique has long been used in industries and operational organizations. In 1944, the scheme is made compulsory in Britain for industries to train their employees within the industry.

Katz and Morse (1950) referred to on the job training as a technique that afford an example of wide spread use of groups training for supervisors. It is aimed at making a rapid impact by the economic use of training resources, in groups of workers in industries. Singelton (1976) ascertained that the most frequently used technique in employee development in acquiring job skill, attitude and efficiency is on the job training.

In practice, on the job training varies in formal organizations from simply assigning the new employees to an experienced worker to be shown-the-job, to be a formal arrangement with instructor assigned to guide and evaluate the training effort of trainee. There is little or no data from a carefully controlled experiments on the effectiveness of the on-the-job training. It can be an effective training technique, but requires hard work and careful planning by those responsible for training.

  1. Apprenticeship Training

Apprenticeship training refers to integration of the on-the job training and off-the job training that appear under normal circumstances to be effective. The main purpose of apprentice training is to prepare employers for a variety of skilled occupations.

Oluwanya, (1990:7) stressed that apprenticeship training is in some cases subverted by a desire among certain management representative to obtain as much productive labour as possible at a reduced apprentices rate.

Okon Ugoka (1987:1) emphasized that to achieve the objectives of apprenticeship training employees should access the training needs annually to determine the number required in each category, skills and knowledge of these trades should be instantly analyzed. Therefore, it is pertinent to note that view on programme instructions depends on individual perception and the organizations may recommend the technique for preparing trainees for actual jobs which they face while some may find the technique time consuming and expansive to handle. The programme is bound to change from time to time due to some dynamic effects on the organization.

  1. Conference Method

This technique of training provides the participants the opportunity to pool ideas and facts to test assumptions and draw inferences or conclusions. The purpose of the conference, determines the manner of presentation if it is for developing the problem solving and decision making skill of the participants.

The conference leaders (trainer) just facilitate the participant of the individuals but at the same time to present the conference from staying too far from the objectives. Some of the identify constraints, of the technique is its restriction to small group participation and center around conveying a much substantive content in a reasonable length of time it lacks an organization and emphasizes is on demonstration rather than training.

iii. Seminars and workshop

The essence of seminar and workshop is to develop practicing and operative managers in their effort to achieve organizational goal. According to Seifu Balogun (1978:290) employee who get along well with others and who exist leadership in group situation are those who often attend seminar. It is necessary that they achieve among other things important productivity and rejuvenate through the situations of management training.

Seminar and workshop programmes should include management and conservation of resources. Guidance and counseling techniques, policy analysis and programmes due to the fact, it provides a forum that brings staff from all organizations to pull ideas together and discuss freely.

The Feedback Technique and Methods

This is a method by which training staff are assessed by the feedback gotten from staff trained; this implies that after training, positive response will be expected from the staff, but where it appears negative. They will now be assessed and future training organized for them.

In an interview with Mr. F.C Anikpo of speed well service, he declared that for a good result oriented training to be effective, organizer must be abreast of the background need of the training. This could be discovered by critical analysis of the operations of the company to find out where there are deficiencies, companion of previous, present and future expected operations and outcome will be relevant so as to identify the best training methods that will suit the organization for effective performance and development.

From the foregoing, it could be rightly inferred that for a good establish development, there is need for a companion of present and future expected operations.

As the economy is changing with new technological breakthrough, it will be wise to consider their changes and move on with trend. It is only through training that such can be identified and moving with trend entails development.

Therefore, it can be concluded that training develops manpower and it is the function of training develops manpower and it is the function of training institutions or agents to organize it effectively.

  • The Place of Industrial Training in Achieving Organizational Objectives.

Manpower is regarded as the greatest asset of any organization hence human asset can be developed to vital use. It can be inferred that organizations that require to train and develop their workers will not make or meaningful headway.

According to Flippo (1988:20), he maintained that effective training increases productivity, reduce cost, heighten moral, promote organizational stability and equality says Flippo. These are the gains achievable from training and that is the more reason why workers who have not received training on their jobs lack the necessary confidence and skill with which to carry out their jobs.

Employer’s productivity is a function of ability will and situation factors. Scott A.K Mitchell (1997:7), said that an organization may have employees of ability and determination with appropriate equipment and managerial ability support yet productivity falls below expected standard. A missing link is identified which many cases are lack of adequate skills and knowledge, which are acquired through training and development.

However, some organization who are unable to meet skill requirement from government establishment, their own training scheme or plan.

Most of the organizations are handicapped because of the high cost of establishing individual worker hence they resort to on-the job training which some writers like Scott and Mitchell said are inefficient and costly too.

On this part, fashoyin (1959:27) said that industrial relations should not only concentrate on educating workers in the art of industrial relation but should relate to modeling the attitudes of workers to work and to employers/employees relation. It is when there is harmony between the two that organization objectives can be achieved. To him, this can be done through collective bargaining which can change the cynical and suspicious attitudes of workers/employers towards each other. This is what training should teach rather than concern for only wage determination.

This means that the training of the employee should not only be towards the achievement for the organizational goal, but should also embrace the satisfaction of workers. This industrial training is to develop the employees newly emerging job oriented problems, like giving the employees skill requisite for the satisfaction of rules and procedures require of the job. In essence, employees must be helped through training to appreciate the importance and work demands of his environment. These ensure that the right attitude action and reaction can expected from the employee and his environment. From the foregoing, it is known that industrial training offers both managers and workers the capabilities of doing their jobs for the attainment of organization overall objectives.

Brief History of ITF

Although the concept of National Industrial Training Scheme has been for many years. Its functional framework was not established until the second national development plan (1970-74). The federal military government establishes their agencies with the responsibilities of manpower training and development.

They include:

  1. The industrial Training Fund (ITF), 1971.
  2. The Nigeria Council of Management Development (NCMO) 1972
  3. The administrative staff college of Nigeria (ASCON) 1973

According to the federal Gazette18, the ITF was established by decree No. 47 of October 1971. The decree change the ITF with the responsibility of promoting, encouraging the acquisition of skills in industry and commerce with a view to generate a pool of indigenous training manpower sufficient to meet the needs of the economy.

As Udeze (2002:129) pointed out, student at tertiary institutions are required to participate in 3 months or 1 year industrial training programme under the auspices of ITF. This will help the graduates to mix their college theories with what is done in real life. The students write I.T Reports at the end of their training. 

Objectives of the Industrial Training Fund (ITF)

The objectives of the fund are to promote and encourage the acquisition of skills in industry and commerce, with a view to be rich in terms of manpower sufficient to meet the needs of the economy. In order to achieve these objectives, the governing council of the ITF has a comprehensive policy on training formulated in 1973 which is known as industrial.

Training fund statement No. 1 According to the following measures by which the fund actively support training in the economy.

Bearing a portion of erect cost of the job training courses approved by the fund.

Assisting and strengthening training capability and facilities throughout the country.

Encouraging greater involvement of employees’ particularly small ones, in the organization and directing the training especially through the establishment of group training scheme and centres on critical area of economic activity.

Direct building up training facilities of its own, in these areas where little or nothing is being done.

Seeking to harmonized all its training efforts and support with the activities of formal training institutions as well as utilize their facilities for clearly designed job oriented training of craftsman through apprenticeship and other less expensive formal system to the ITF. Again, the activities of trade/vocational centres are to be harmonized in line with the new development in the training situation of the country.

The fund offers employees the followings:

  1. Training their trainers.
  2. Identifying their training needs
  3. Running implant for the company
  4. Lending Audio-visual aids free of charge
  5. Re-imbursing approved training expenses
  6. Running group training schemes
  7. Running direct courses for employers of labour.

How ITF Work

It is concluded by many researchers that emphasis should be placed not on training programmes instead, on the result of training. Among them are Kontz and Donnel, who pointed that training benefits derived from attending development courses are negligible unless they satisfy a clearly defined training. It tends to receive the support of stooner to him, the job skill for effectiveness of the receiving organization should be analyzed and appropriated programmes for the employer but also evaluate the nature of the job required by the organization which includes designed management courses and programmes to meet its requirement.

Scott and Mitchell declared that the consideration of training programmes should be based on the job done; he further stated there should be analysis which will help appropriate programme to be developed in essence. ITF should design training programmes to fall in line with the job done. So that the skills to be acquired will help thee worker to match the job. ITF should design programmes in light of time.

Problems of ITF

ITF had over the years is besieged by one problem or the other. Their problem affects the performance of the fund. These problems as was recorded in the recent magazines TRADE are:

  1. Insufficient Fund

The funds sources of income are subvention from government, annual and contribution from the employers of labour. To the fund, the money is not enough to sustain it. The fund has always been running a deficit budget because their expenses have always exceeded their income levy collection and incidence of default, many firms default in paying their annual training obligation. Firms do not pay as at when due, they crippling the economics of the fund.

  1. Reluctance of Employers to Invest on Manpower Training

Most companies pay the levies to comply with the law but in actual fact, they have no systematic training programmes for their staff, this attitude has been referred to as Employers Hypocrisy.

  1. Lack of Compulsion by Law to Firms to Train their Own Staff

The law does not compel companies to train their staff as a matter of obligation so they do not find great compulsion to train their workers; instead they prefer recruiting already trained ones.

  1. Staff Problems:

The numbers and quality of the young professionals working staff to the fund are not satisfactory. The professionals are expected to deliver and organize seminars for experienced company workers.

Furthermore, the trained professionals that are supposed to work for fund after training set up their own consultancy firms. There is also lack of information or understanding of the nature and essential services of the fund in the national economy.

The fund also suffers from a loss of qualified and experienced staff to handle their training programme. In the same manner, the employers loose workers trained with the fund.

An oral interview by the researcher with one of the ITF officials, reveals that the state of condition of Anambra area office is disguising. Most of their facilities have been vandalized. Most participants in training find the environment not conducive

Summary of Review of the Related Literature

From the view of related literature, it appears that industrial training scheme improves productivity and efficiency of manpower in business organizations.

Manshion and Myers (1991) in their own opinion of this study say that efficiency can be achieved by inferring from skilled manpower.

According to Flippo (1988), he maintained that effective training increase productivity, reduce cost, heighten moral, promote organization stability and equality.

From all ramifications, it is pertinent to mention that the skilled contented of ITF training programmes are very qualitative and useful to participants, and genuine partners in progress, especially professional and those interested in manpower training and development are enjoined to support the ITF as the nation cannot afford to do without skills and trained indigenous manpower for her national development.