The Role of Transportation and Communication in the Economic Development of Nigeria
This research work was designed to survey the role of transportation and communication in the economic development of Nigeria. In carrying out this researcher visited Oredo Local Government Area to research the topic considered. Interview and questionnaires were used to collect data and these were analyzed in form of tables, figures and using percentages. Therefore, from the data collected and analyzed it was observed that transportation has contributed a lot to the economic development of Oredo Local Government Area, it was also revealed that transportation has employed over eighty (80) per cent of the individual in Oredo Local Government Area and this is a good economic benefit to the people it has created job opportunity for. Based on the finding, the following recommendation was made, the government should improve on the repair of roads nationwide most especially in Oredo Local Government Area. Also, in the area of power supply, which is necessary for every modern society, it will be very important to improve on the distribution to enhance effective communication in the city and also improve the business communication.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The role of transportation and communication cannot be over emphases in the economic development of Nigeria, because of the fundamental purpose of transportation and communication and their various needs in the form of material facilities and services. However, transportation and communication facilities are the vital infrastructures of a modern economy transportation system comprises of several models including road, rail, waterways etc. and communication system includes a post office, courier service wireless, and electronic media. According to a report from environmental news on Nigeria transportation and communication, Nigeria transportation network was one of the best in Africa in 1990, featuring an existing system of paved highways, railroads, airports and ports. During the oil boom of the 1990s, however, most government funds era-marked (assigned) for transportation were applied to the construction of new roads and maintenance of existing facilities was ignored. As a result, the transportation system was plagued with congestion and a deteriorating infrastructure. Like many economic activities that are intensive in infrastructure, the role of the transportation sector is an important component of the economy impacting on development and the welfare of the population. When transportation systems are efficient, they provide economic and social opportunities and benefits that result in positive multipliers effects such as better accessibility to market employment and additional investments, when transportation system is deficient in terms of capacity or reliability, they can have an economic cost such as reduced or missed opportunities. Transportation also carries an important social and environmental load that cannot be neglected thus, from a general standpoint, the economic impact of transportation can be direct and indirect. The direct impact is related to accessibility change where transportation enables to save time and costs. The indirect impact is related to the economic multiplier, an effect where the price of commodities goods or services drop and /or their variety increases. (News watch Nigeria social infrastructure Edo State.
On the other hand, according to Wikipedia, transportation links together the factors of production in a complex web of the relationship between producers and consumers, the outcomes is commonly a more efficient division of production by exploitation of geographical comparative advantages as well as the means to develop the economics of scale and scope. The productivity of space, capital and labour is thus enhanced with the efficiency of distribution and personal mobility. It is acknowledged that economic growth is increasingly linked with transportation developments, namely infrastructures but also managerial expertise is crucial for logistics.
Moreover, the article published by environmental news, on Nigeria’s transportation and communication stresses that early modern communication took place in three modes, spoken words manuscripts writing especially letters and prints, oral communication was the oldest of these three and in many rays, early modern society was still primarily on oral society. Although literacy increased enormously during this period, most people, especially among the lower classes, possessed limited reading and speech for preserving and transmitting the information. Furthermore, as a result of a major expansion of one of the best domestic Telecommunication systems in sub-Sahara Africa in 1990, about 11,000 telephones were put in place in Nigeria at the end of the 1980s about one-third of the were in the capital. Also, a domestics satellite system with nineteen ground stations, along with coaxial cable and a microwave network linked all major urban areas most localities could receive at least one of the society-five amplitude modulation (AM) radio stations, more than a dozen cities had frequency modulation (FM) radio stations short wave broadcasts from six transmitters were directed at remote rural areas, the broadcast was in English, Yoruba, Hausa, Igbo and twelve other languages. Most urban areas also had television services.
In 1990, the country had an estimated ten million radio and ten million televisions. However, international telecommunication was modern and provides high-quality links to the rest of the world, in coordination with the international telecommunication Satellite Corporation (Intelsat), Atlantic Ocean and India Ocean satellite, three ground stations made live television broadcasting, and direct telephone dialling was possible between Nigeria was the terminus of an undersea coaxial cable linking the West Africa countries with France and capable of carrying nine hundred and sixty simultaneous long-distance telephone calls. (Wikipedia: Finnish Transportation Safety Agency).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Transportation and communication is a key factor in economic development be it air, sea or road transportation courier services, post offices, wireless electronic media etc. it is required for the movement of goods, personnel and services, broadcasting, transmitting and dissemination of information, without which there will be economic stagnation.
For too long, the transportation system has suffered abandonment in the hands of the previous administration, resulting in regrettable dilapidation of infrastructures the quality of the roads has also constituted death traps and nightmares to motorists and commuters.
Neglected by both public and private organizations in Nigeria, and inconsistency in government policy and implementation can be a huge transportation problem, however, communication can play a vital role in the economy, it there is adequate coordination of infrastructural planning and the problem of lack of equipment standardization which created problems of spare part stocking in been tackled, so, therefore, there is need for this research work to based on the role transportation and communication both play in the development of Oredo Local Government Area for these problems stated above not to emerge.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is as follows;
To critically examine the various transportation and communication we have in Oredo Local Government Area and the nation in general.
To identify how transportation and communication have contributed to the development of Oredo Local Government Area.
To establish the interrelation between transportation and communication.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this research is to discuss the role of transportation and communication play in the development of the Oredo Local Government Area and the nation at large.
This research will also enable the government to acknowledge the fact that transportation and communication are of great importance to the development of the economy and thereby enabling them to provide solutions to the numerous existing problems.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions have been indicated to the development of the economy.
Which of the following means of transportation and communication have created job opportunities for economic development in Oredo Local Government Area?
Is government mismanagement of funds responsible for the depression of transportation?
Does the mean of transportation affect the depression of economic growth?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research will focus attention on the role of transportation and communication in the Oredo Local Government Area and its contribution to economic growth and development.
The scope of this study shall be broadly divided into chapters that will critically examine the role of transportation and communication in the Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Transportation: How goods and services, people are moved from one place to another, using vehicles, road etc.
Communication: This is the process of expressing ideas, and feeling or of giving people information.
Infrastructure: The basic system and services that are necessary for a country organization for example buildings, transportation, water and power suppliers and administrative system.
Development: The gradual growth of something’s so that it becomes more advanced in other words, it is the process of producing or creating something new or more advanced.
Economy: The relationship between production, trade and the supply of money in a particular country or region.