ROLE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN GENDER CONFLICT RESOLUTION. (A STUDY OF FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC.)
This study “Role of Public Relations on Gender Conflict Resolution. (A Study of First Bank Nigeria Plc, Emene, Branch), seeks to study the term gender conflict, in addition to the importance and effective practice of Public Relations. It covers the important roles which a Public Relations practitioner performs on the Bank and also the Qualities of Public Relations practitioner. A critical review to related literature were made. Relevant theories were used to gratify the study, that the social responsibility theory, which was used to describe Public Relations as social responsibilities of maintaining a good and mutual relationship between the banker and customers and environment in which it operates. The sample size of 171 were used using Taro Yamane formula. The researcher made use of survey research method. The questionnaire and oral interview was used for data collection. Data was presented in tables and a descriptive approach is adopted in analysis using chi square. Finally, the researcher made some recommendation including, Public Relations practitioners complained that management does not consult them on policy –making plan or even inform important matters. This can be resolve if only the management realize the important roles of the Public Relations. The management should likewise show concern toward the effective practices of Public Relations practitioners. When this is done we can be sine of a conducive working environment.
1.1 Background of the Study
Gender is a general term that refers to girls, boys, women and men. Gender can also be defined to include the roles of makes and females in the society. A gender perspective in conflict would look at the way in which the considerations of these different groups of people will be dealt with during the transitional justices process. Female’s experience of conflict and transitions however differ from the of males due to gendered patterns that define different roles and experiences during both conflict and post- conflict. Whenever there is interaction between two individuals, there are chances of difference of opinion. Gender and conflict then, refers to the ways women and men are affected in times of conflict.
Conflicting situation is a situation in which two or more values, perspectives and opinions are contradictory in nature, have not yet aligned or agreed upon yet. Conflict may be defined in many ways and can be considered as an expression hostility, negative attitudes, antagonism, aggression, rivalry, and misunderstanding. It is also associated with situation that involves contradictory or irreconcilable interests between two opposing groups. A simple definition of conflict is that it is any tension which is experienced when one person perceived that one’s needs or desires are or are likely to be thwarted or frustrated (Gupta and Joshi, 2008). A conflict is more than just a disagreement. It is a situation in which people perceive a threat (Physical, emotional, power, status etc) to their well – being and is caused by the differences and clash of personalities – attitudes, beliefs and values and needs, Conflicts are inherent in any interpersonal relationship, its management is integral to the performance of any organization. Conflict management involves acquisition of skills relating to conflict resolution, self –awareness about conflict modes, conflict communication skills, and establishing a structure for management of conflict in your environment. Banking industry is the backbone of any economy. Progress of any country is directly or indirectly influenced by soundness of banking system of the country. In globalized world, trade and commerce would almost be impossible with the availability of suitable banking services.
The handling of conflict resolution in an organization or in the political realm of a state is major function of Public Relations. It is an essential skill of Public Relations manager to prevent gender conflict resolution rather than finding solutions when crisis erupt. The use of fire brigade approach in finding solution to problems that arises in banking sectors is described as “Remedial Public Relations” by Haywood (1984) whereas “preventive Publics Relations” is what many scholars advocate in public relations practice. This is “the prevention of crisis in an organization through effective communication network between the organization and its publics in order to engender understanding, acceptance, goodwill, respect, efficiency, good welfare and mutual support and cooperation”. In order to handle conflict resolution in our organizations, and be in a position to apply Public Relations as a strategic management option for survival and growth, Nwosu (2004) says that Public Relations practitioners should see themselves as managers as well as carry out their functions as skilled and knowledgeable managers in a manner similar to what exit or is the dominant paradigm commercial organizations. This is therefore, the key to the reduction eradication of the unceasing crises in organizations arising from areas management – employee relations management – trade –union relations, cultism organizational politics,, ethnic and sectional chauvinism and personality clashes. In the same vein, researcher reported that male managers preferred power and authority while female managers used communication before resorting to using power (coercion). Also, female supervisors were found to use coercion less than male than male supervisor and often after other resolution styles do not yield desired results (Mulac, Siebold, & Farris, 2000; Lamude & Torres, (2000).
This implies that female supervisors in first Bank tend to ultimately use coercion if necessary. The research reported that subordinates see coercive – based technique as negative while the rewarding, referent and expert – based techniques were seen as positive by the subordinates. Reflecting on conflict management effectiveness.
Faniran (2002) and Adekunle (2004) reported that experienced managers were found to be more effective in managing conflict situations than less experienced managers. The authors further reported that working experience rather than gender of the manager has been found to have significantly influenced conflict management effectiveness. Also, the bankers argue that experience male and female managers were found to be equally effective in managing conflict through their attitude may be quite different. First bank solve gender issue by giving all their customers male and female change to exercise their fundamental human right according to bank ethnic. In the current dispensation of Nigeria political realm, gender is a big threat in the society, where the First Lady of Nigeria is fighting tooth and nail for federal government to recognize female in the working sectors. Ladies should be give 50% chance of opportunity. This chapter therefore, focuses on the importance and the acquisition of necessary skills and knowledge in conflict resolution management among organizational heads, and other general crises management skills, including how to handle the media and bad press “during crises in First Bank Plc. Emene, Enugu.
1.2 Statement of Problem
From the above background, its obvious that gender conflict is a negative element that is highly unwelcomed in the banking sector. Conflict decreases growth and brings about instability in the banking industries. It brings about unhealthy competition among other Mega Banking Sectors. This development is critical as foreign and domestic investors will be sceptical that their huge investment would be safe, fear and insecure as well as lack of trust and confidence will prevail. Thus, for the continuity of development for First Bank to be guaranteed, the need for Public Relations roles in managing conflict in the First Bank can not be overemphasized.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- To find out whether Public Relations play a vital role in conflict resolution between First Bank and other mega banks.
- To find out whether racism of gender inequality of income or sex and lack of labour affect the working force of First Bank Plc.
- To find out whether unhealthy competition affect the global market of banking industries in First Banks Plc. Emene branch.
- To find out whether gender conflict decrease the growth and brings about instability in the banking industries.
1.4 Research Questions
The researcher formulated the following question:
- Does Public Relations play a vial role in conflict resolution between First Bank and other Mega Banks?
- To what extent does racism of gender inequality of income or sex affect the working force of First Bank Plc?
- Does unhealthy competition affect the global market of banking industries in First Bank Plc. Emene Branch?
- Does gender conflict affects the growth and brings about instability in the banking industries?
1.5 Hypotheses of the Study
The researcher made use of null hypothesis
H0i: Public Relations does not play a vital role in conflict resolution between First Bank and other mega Banks.
H0: Public Relations play a vital role in conflict resolution between First Bank and other mega Banks
Hii: Racism of gender inequality of income or sex does not affect the working force of First Bank Plc.
H0: Racism of gender inequality of income or sex affects the working force of First Bank Plc.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will benefit many government officials and co-operate organizations in conflict resolution and management as few work have been done on the subject. Also it will serve as a starting point for other researchers who will be interested in the subject of this research. It will also be beneficial to Emene communities and Public Relations experts as more knowledge has been gained from the research. The research of this kind becomes necessary as its finding provides the Public Relations practitioners with comprehensive and broad knowledge of what could be the effect of corporate social responsibility for enhancing community relations. In essence, the study will serve as a useful guide for future researcher to either validate or reject the finding of the study.
1.7 Definitions of Terms (Operational Definition)
The terms are operationally defined as follows: The meaning of key words that constitute the research problem and some key words that my be used frequently in course of this research work will be defined as sub-headings to ensure proper and easy understanding of the study.
The following salient concepts have been conceptually defined for the study.
Crisis Management: Black (1999) defined crisis management as the process by which organization deals with any major unpredictable events that threatens to harm the organization, it is responding to unforeseen circumstance with no time to plan ahead.
Management: Weihrich (1994) opted management as the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individual working together in groups efficiently accomplish selected aims through planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling.
Public Relations: (1987) also defined Public Relations as the forms of planned communication outward or inward between an organization and it public for the purpose of achieving specific object concerning mutual understanding.
Resolution: A firm decision to do or not to do something, the quality of being determined or resolute. It also a process of settlement of dispute among smaller and mega banks to gender conflict.
Conflict Resolution: Conflict resolution conceptualization as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict.
Gender Conflict: Gender conflict is based on the cultural beliefs various societies have established concerning the roles men and women play in those societies.
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