Route Survey and Design of Pavement of Road
The project covers a view and detailed explanation of the route survey which in chider reconnaissance surrey, theologize traversing and leveling operation as well as soil tests which includes compaction test, mechanical analysis, plastic and liquid limits and CBR test.
The project also covers the design of pavement and the geometric design of the road way
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 AIM OF THE PROJECT
1.2 RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
1.3 FACTORS CONSIDERED IN RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
1.4 GEOMETRIC DESIGN
1.5 FACTORS WHICH FAVOUR THE SELECTION OF A ROUTE OR ROAD ALIGNMENT
1.6 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
2.1 EARTH WORK
2.3 LONGITUDINAL SECTIONS
2.5 NEED FOR SECTIONS
2.6 THE PURPOSE, USES AND IMPORTANCE OF LEVELING
2.7 INSTRUMENT USED IN LEVELING
2.8 TERMINOLOGIES USED IN LEVELING
2.9 TYPES OF LEVECS
2.10 FIELD LEVELING OPERATION
2.11 TABULATION OF LEVELING RESULTS
2.12 EARTH WORK COMPUTATION
3.0 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE THEODOLITE
3.1 THEODOLITE TRAVERSING
3.2 TRAVERSING INSTRUMENTS
3.3 FIELD TRAVERSING OPERATION
3.4 TRAVERSE PESULT/COMPUTATION
4.0 COLLECTION OF SAMPLES
4.1 LABORATORY SOIL TEST
4.2 TYPES OF LABORATORY TEST TO BE CARRIED OUT
4.3 COMPACTION TEST
4.4 CALIFORNIA BEARING RAYIO TEST
4.5 COMPUTATION OF CBR TEST RESULTS
4.6 MECHANICAL ANALYSIS
4.7 COMPUTATION OF SCEVE ANALYSIS RESULTS
4.8 AYTERBERGE LIMIT TEST
4.9 LIQUID LIMIT TEST
4.10 PLASTIC LIMIT TEST
4.11 PAVEMENT DESIGN
4.12 RIGD PAVEMENT
4.13 FLEXI BLE PAVEMENT
4.14 GROUD USDEX METHOD OF MANAGEMENT DESIGN
4.15 CBR METHOD OF PAVEMENT DESIGN
4.16 DRAINAGE WORKS
5.1 SIMPLE CURVES
5.2 COMPOUND CURVE
5.3 REVERSE CURVES
5.5 FUNCTIONS OF A TRANSITION CURVE
5.6 SURPER ELEVATION
5.7 CURVE ELEMENT AND FORMULAE
5.8 STAGES OF WORK IN ACTUAL ROAD CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT USED FOR THE ACTUAL ROAD
The importance of road to a community and its activities cannot be over emphasized. Road is as ole as man and plays a vital role in the movement of people and goods from one state to another. Good road network is one of the basic requirement that enhances the social, political and economic growth of a nation. It is obvious that life would have been very difficult without the existence of roads.
Nigeria for instance acknowledged the importance of good road network such that the local, state and federal government are all involved in the provision, development and maintenance of roads in the country in other to boost economic aquaculture and commercial activities in the nation
History has shown that provision of good road network is an important tool for civilization. Roads are of optimum benefit to the people in the sense that it brings about industrialization, commercialization in a community and also ease traffic congestion and facilitates the movement of agricultural products from the rural areas to urban centers.
AIM OF THE PROJECT
The aim of the project is to provide the student with the practical knowledge in the design of a road way with a bid to help the student execute such related project in real practice in tentative.
It is also aimed at marrying they with practice and also at during information on the nature and effectiveness of the sub-grade material and support what should done with the aid of test results to alleviate pavement failure
This is a quick type of survey or rapid examination of the ground and its adjacent natural features usually made without survey instruments to limit the alternate route in terms of cost to one or two
FACTORS NORMALLY CONSIDERED IN RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
– over all cartage of goods
– Nearness to road material qualities
– Traffic conditions
– Soil conditions
– Right of way or road land
– Ruling gradient
– Type of road surface
– Number of major and minor bridges
– Approximate length and cost
– Curvature along the alignment
This is the aspect of the high way design that is solely meant to take care of the road user and level of service rendered to him. The paramount factor of consideration include; expected traffic design speed and volume. Elaharty E.A. in his book “High way Traffic planning and Engineering states that proper geometric design will inevitably reduce the number and seventy of highway accidents while ensuring high traffic flow with minimum delay. He continued by saying that improper design would result in the early deterioration of the new high way with constant economic loss to the community.
FACTORS, WHICH FAVOUR THE SELECTION OF ROUTE OR ROAD ALIGNMENT
There are a number of factors, which favour the selection of a routine or toad alignment for constriction and they include;
– The route should be as straight as possible. This implies least cost of construction, maintenance and operation of vehicles as wear and tear on curved routs are entirely eliminated
– Vertical and horizontal alignments should be eased out with maximum radius of courageous in relation to design speed and maximum rate of super elevation
– Good sight distance should be maintained sight distance or visibility is the distance measured along the centre line of a road over which the driver can see the opposite object on the road for the necessary application of brake and stopping of vehicle to avoid any accident.
– Applicability of proper road drainage: immediate evacuation of rain water on pavements as well as on the embitterment of a high way is necessary if the high way is to last till the end of the design life generally taken as 20 years.
– Availability of road building materials such as stone, gravels, sand, laterite etc along the highway bring down the cost of construction as well as maintenance cost
– Freedom from slides should be ensured for construction on hilly areas of cuts it is necessary to ensure that the construction the road does not produce earth cutting slides or earth cutting slips
– Good soil formation should be ensured stubborn soil normally provoke early deformation and soft cutting and result in costly constructions.
– Avoidance of impaired visibility: The alignment should cross another road or railway alignment or stream preferably at right angles to ensure visibility at these crossings.
SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The scope of the project includes leveling operation, traversing of the road, soil situation, design of cure and pavement design and drainage.