Rural Development, a Means of Combating Rural-Urban Migration
Nigeria rural masses constitute the main nucleus wherever the rural sector is mentioned, it leads to that backward areas of the nation.
This stems that cover rural areas are insignificant attention in the various development policies of the government. This most development polices of the government are urban – oriented, which resemble in many ways those of the white. That is our colonialists. As a result of this, the rural dwellers hare been subjected to object of neglect by successive regimes in Nigeria in the previous years. It is under this democratically government that little attention is being given to the rural areas. In a not shell, the rural dwellers hare poor road net work and other economic and social defects.
The discussion will base on the back ground of rural urban distils, its causes and effects and recommendation on recreating a more balanced society and forestalling the on – going lop –sided migration.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Scope of the study
1.5 Research Question
1.6 Research hypothesis
1.7 Significance of the study
1.8 Limitation of the study
1.9 Definition of terms.
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Definition and preview of urbanization
2.2 Nigeria urbanization
2.3 Urbanization in Njikoka Local Govt.
2.4 Socio – Economic Advantage of urbanization
2.5 Impact of rural – urban migration on urban areas
2.6 Impact of rural – urban migration urban
Discussion, Recommendation and Conclusions
3.1 Discussion, of Results, / finding
3.3 Implications of the research finings
3.5 Suggestion for further research.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria, as one of countries in the African continent, site has an over all area of about 913072.64km and population 100 million people at present. Most of the area in developing countries, the population is predominately rural, about 34.12 percent of the total population one currently living in the urban areas. According to the economic and social static’s bulletin tin in the federal office of statistics 1985, in 163, 81 percent of Nigeria were living in the rural areas and by 1973 the percentage had reduced to 71 percent and in 1983 it was 68.88 percent. This shows that Nigerians rural masses constitute the main nucleus of the population.
Beside, they are not only substantial proportion of the nations manpower needs, but form the base upon which an industrial and technological growth, hoes and aspiration me built. They are principle determinates of the election future aspiration and office – holders.
However despite their indispensable role in the progress of the nation their standard of bring one on better than that of a second – class citizen.
Abject neglect by successful, adequate attention is not being gives to the rural areas development.
This means that most of the problems encounter by the rural dweller has not be given adequate attention and all those has turned them into mondervants which one often miskalves and even misunderstood diseases dovonright poverty have to an external berepteam of almost all the essence of bring.
This is not withstanding rural development has not received adequate and well co-ordinates attention over the years. Often willfed; ill – clad and ill-sheltered. They are over in want of basic amenities of necessities of life. In addition, good drinking water electricity supply, recreational facilities, good roads and employment opportunities and almost virtually lacking.
On the other hand, the urban centers with rather irresistible attractions hold the “pull” They are a lot of things, which make life more meaningful.
Those prevision normally attract the attention and met the appetite of our rural dwellers and as a result of this socio – economic rebalance there had been mass exodus of our rural dwellers to the pleasing urban area for better social and economic alternatives.
In fact, our rural areas hare dramatically and directly been depopulated, this, farming and other labour – oriented occupations, which together constitute the mainstay of the people hare been badly affected as could be evidenced by the current prices of foodstuffs in the country, and thereby resulted to a fill in the economy. Of course there is way but the only way to diffuse the tension and forget a balance in the rural urban migration is to provide the rural masses with those amenities that will raise there lives from lethargy of despair to the plant of contentment and in such a way that they cannot see any remarkable difference or special advantage in bring in cities.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Rural development is now a matter of crucial concern in most development countries in general and Nigeria in particular. Indeed the problem is on how to ensure adequate development of the rural areas, to match the overgrowing migratory demand as well as achieving the motives and the development should be reasonable enough to justify their risks of not migrating. However, under rural areas and the continued migratory trend, this may be very difficult to accomplish. As a result of the developmental problem, it is very difficult to improve on the already create shortage or adequate rural development in Nigeria.
The rural – urban drift has escalated house rent in the cities, house rents in any Nigeria towns and particularly in Lagos, Abuja- the Federal capital, and in Onitsha, the commercial nerve of Njikoka Local Govt. increased four – fold between 1952 and 1972. the commutative effect of all those trends encountered above include low rate of rural development, lack of fends for carrying out these adversely affect the rate of rural development.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Bearing in mind the enormity of the reeds of the rural development and various motives of this migrants the purpose of this study are:
i. To determine the affect of rural development during migratory period.
ii. To ascertain the role being play by various organization such as mass mobilization of people (MAMESR). Community development directorate of food, roads and rural infrastructure (DFRII) Poverty alleviation (PAP), and finally support programme (FST).
iii. To identify the class of Nigerians mostly involved in migration.
iv. To access the effect of the continuous rise in migration on the migrants.
v. To suggest solutions and possible recommendations that could minimize, if not completely eradicate the various problems of rural development and also suggest ways of improving the present rate of rural development, despite all these hindrance mentioned above.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project work covers Njikoka Local Govt. for administrative purposes. Njikoka was part of the defunct Easter Nigeria. With the creation of states in 1967, it formed part of the East centered state. It assumed its current name and status, when in 10 states was exciscd from East central state in 1976. as a result of the local government reform in the thirty – two Local government areas. Furthermore, Njikoka has two major urban center; Onitsha and Nnewi and other major center urban, like Awka etc.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
i. Did most Nigerians and Njikoka in particular involve in rural – urban migration?
ii. Can the role played by these various organization measure, FSP,SAP, PAP) in this country with reference to Njikoka community development on the provision and development of rural areas?
iii. What percentage or how best can we ascertain or identify the numbers and class of the rural population that engages urban migration?
iv. What can we do to reduce it or eradicate the various problems of rural development?
v. How best can we put a lasting solution and improvement in rural development?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
i. HQ, the development of rural areas in necessary.
HQ, the development of rural areas is not necessary.
ii. HQ, Rural development will not minimize the rush to urban cities.
iii. HQ, Rural development will solve the problem of rural – urban migration.
HQ, Rural development will not solve the problem of rural – urban migration.
iv. HQ, it will reduce the high cost of house rent paid in the cities.
HQ, it will not reduce the high cost of house rent paid in the citizens.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The investigation on the impact of migration from rural to urban areas would give some insight into the difficulties or otheririse of the policy to areas where improvement is desired. Beside it is hoped that the result of the rent period to their landlords and the rural dwellers who are affected by the Formwork left in the hand of the aged once to join hand together in solving this problem.
Additionally it is hoped that this report will indicate some areas of knowledge which may relevant for teaching purpose, useful to students as a guide for future research work and eye – operior to migrants. Lastly the report will be significant to the society at large because, by developing the rural areas excess migration into the cities will stop and there will be a good standard of living
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
i. Population: Is the number of people living in a particular area, at a particular fine?
ii. DEVELOPMENT: Is an appropriate rate of growth.
iii. Economy: It is the state of a country’s per capital income.
iv. Statistics: Is an automatic data used to analyze information.
v. Social: Living in a community, society or its organization.
vi. Objective: Are things one is trying to achieve or corruptive