SAFETY CONCERN IN LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS ENVIRONMENT
This research work which is based on safety principles and practice in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) environment. LPG which is a petroleum fraction produced by distillation of crude oil. It is a hugely versatile gas found over many million of years beneath the ground and it is obtaining from processing of natural gas and refining of crude oil LPG is either prepare and instance which is transported from the gas field or refinery installations to storage terminals by tanker or pipeline and is stored in gas cylinders. It is used in domestic, industrial, auto gas, commercial and agricultural purposes. Because of its non-polluted nature, LPG is considered as environmental friendly gas.
Safety policies and principles in LPG plant and environment is carried out in order to create a safe working conditions for workers and as well protects lives and properties of workers, consumers and industries. Due to its high flammable nature, safety should be enhanced in production process, handling, transportation and storage.
Incase of leakage, emergency procedure should be carried out. Small leakages which can be detached by small or detergent/water mixture bubbles. Significant leaks detached by missing sound or king in areas of leakage and should never be used.
Also proper LPG plant layout should be enhanced to ensure hazard free production process and the indecent safety must be stately adhered to during plant design.
Safety is everyone’s responsibility, environment for its workers and consumers and environment. People working tools and equipment should be sued in the LPG production. Work procedures must be used. Staff training must be regular. Fire extinguishers must be provided at strategic point for use. Job description minimum standard for equipment, building, products, processes must be set. In short a good production and managing practice must be in place to guarantee safety for all.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 what is LPG
1.2 production and transportation of LPG
1.3 how LPG is purchased
1.4 LPG location and environment
1.5 How LPG is supplied
1.6 Usage of LPG
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 LPG properties and hazards
2.2 Emergency procedure
2.3 LPG health and safety policy
2.4 LPG bulk tanks safety
2.5 LPG safety tanks controls
2.6 Auto-gas safety.
3.0 SAFETY GUIDELINES IN LPG ENVIRONMENT
3.1 factory act 1958
3.2 operational regulation
3.3 safety department
3.4 LPG plant layout
3.5 Inherent safety
3.6 The Dow/mond indices
3.7 DOMINO Effects
3.8 Auto-gas environment
3.9 LPG vessels
3.11 Fire precautions
3.12 Loading and unloading facilities
This project which is on safety concern (principles and practices) in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) environment. It intends to provide an overall guide to safe practice in storage and handling liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) at fixed storage installations.
It also provides a guide to safe practice both for personnel storing LPG and those enforcing safety requirement. The recommendation are intended to minimize the risks of fire and explosion from escaping LPG and from external sources of fire.
WHAT IS LPG?
LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) is either propane (c3H8), butane (c4H10) or mixture of those two light hydrocarbon fuel (2).
In a gaseous state at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature, LPG becomes a liquid at 150c when the pressure is lowered to between 1.7 and 7.5 bars. This facilitates both storage and transportation.
1 litre liquid propand=270 litres gaseous propane at 150c.
propane starts vapourising above –450c and butane above –20c (excluding its used in cold environment.
PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORTATION
LPG has two different origins LPG comes from the processing of natural gas (60%) and also from the refining of crude oil (40%). 200 million tones of LPG a2 were produced in 2000, accounting for approximately 2-3% of primary energy consumption worldwide among other energy sources such as natural gas electricity oil, coal etc.
LPG is transported from the gas fields or refinery installations to storage terminals by tanker or pipeline. The terminals can be refrigerated, pressurized or underground storage facilities (cavern). From these terminals plant, bulk depot, major industrial end-users and to piped distribution network by coastal tanker, barge, rail, tank truck or pipeline.
HOW LPG IS PURCHASED
Production flow management is becoming more and more sophisticated many people are involved in the everyday buying and selling of LPG throughout the world.
SHV gas supply and trading (prous, Singapore) and piñatas central Europe (vienno) carry out many such transactions on a daily basis, together with the local teams of the different business unit of SHV gas. Their task is to ensure availability of supply, getting the best product at the best price at the right time and in the right place.
LPG LOCATION AND ENVIRONMENT
LPG location can be found in every NNPC/PPMC refineries and depots. Like in Port Harcourt refinery, kaduna refinery, warri depot calabar depot, mosimi depot, Aba depot, Enugu depot, LPG plant is always located adjacent to the depot or refinery.
About the environment aspect by of it.
1. A CLEAN ENERGY
LPG is an environmentally friendly energy. By using LPG fuel, you help protect the environment and pressure the equality of air. LPG is a pure lead free product and is virtually devoid of sulphur and particles. LPG does not produce sulphur dioxide (so2) and only generates limited amount of carbondioxide (co2) and ozon. It also generate very limited quantities of carbonmonoxiode (co) nitrogenoxide (No) unburned hydrocarbons and particles.
When burned LPG is odourless and the noise level is very low.
Safety throughout the distribution chain. From production and transportation through storage and consumption LPG is governed by very stick regulations. New techniques have been made available to protect industrial scale storage standards even higher than before with new mounted storage facilities.
Similarly, the new generation of underground tanks bears witness to the concern of LPG professionals and also improves SHV gas com (environment).
Liquefied petroleum gas referred to as LPG is a hugely versatile gas formed over many million of years beneath the ground.
Clean burning, LPG has a vast any of uses in the home, within industry and agriculture even on the roads.
HOW IS LPG SUPPLIED AND USED
80% of LPG is supplied either in cylinder or in tanks, industry traditional small to large bulk tanked for individuals or industrial consumer, automatic tanks for the “auto gas” market and more recently large bulk tanks ensuring supply to piped networks (town gas).
Cylinder and tanks are of various capacities ranging from 2 to 100kg for cylinders, and from 200kg to 25 tonnes for tanks. Petrochemical plant use the remaining 20% of LPG worldwide.
Thousand of applications are possible with LPG. Therefore the LPG end uses market can be divided into 5 categories.
LPG is used in hundreds of applications by million of years throughout the world.
For the future, its greatest contribution to society will come from its environmental friendliness.
When LPG in burnt, it produces the cleanest emission of all oil-based products with a low carbondioxide out put.
Industry experts predict that there will be enough LPG to satisfy anticipated demand for all uses in the foreseeable future.
DOMESTIC:- At home, LPG can be sued for cooking central heating powering real flames fires and even swimming pools. LPG provide immediate hot water at the required temperature, 24 hours daily.
In the kitchen, the heat can be controlled with great accuracy adjusting the flame to suit the users needs.
The latest development include the new bread of “condensing” boiler, which reduce the full bill quite considerably.
INDUSTRY-: in industry, LPG can be ibid for heating premises, producing paper. Layering roads manufacturing bricks to name but a few. Few energy sources are pure or cleaner, producing controllable high temperature with huggable sulphur emissions.
AGRICULTURE:- In a agriculture farmers are realizing the benefits to be held from LPG.
In the UK poultry breeders are asking shell gas to lend a hand. The result increased output and improvements, in the quality of products. Because of its clean burning qualities, LPG is ideal for a multitude of farming application and is particularly beneficial where livestock is concerned.
ROAD:- On the road, auto-gas from shell gas can offer a practical alternative to petrol or diesel. Auto gas has been used for over 60years and has an impressive safety record. It also has the lowest life cycle green house gas emissions of all commercial fuels.
Auto-gas engines emit fewer of the particulates which causes smog.
AUTO-GAS:- Auto-gas is LPG used for powering road vehicle. In UK prepare is used, but in Europe and Nigeria, a common. The normal prepare storage pressure is modest. Auto-gas LPG has the practical to reduce harmful exhaust emission from traffic. It is also a low carbon content fuel that can reduce the emission of carbon dioxide (main green house gas).
LPG is a hugely versatile gas found over many million of years beneath the ground.
LPG is a petroleum fraction produced by distillations of crude oil.
It comes from the processing natural gas (60%) and from refining of crude oil (40%).
It is either prepare and substance which is transported from the gas field or refinery installations to storage terminals by tankers or pipeline and is stored in LPG gas cylinders. LPG gas is used in domestic industrial, commercial, agricultural and auto-gas purposes. B/cos of its non-polluted nature, LPG is considered as environmental friendly gas.
Safety practice and principles in LPG plant and environment is carried out in order to create a safe working condition for workers and as well protect lives and properties of workers, consumers and industries. Due to its high flammable nature, safety should enhanced from production process, handling transportation and storage. Incase of leakage, emergency procedure should be carried out. Small leakages which can be detached by smell or detergent/water mixture bubbles, significant leaks detected by missing sound or icing in areas of leakage and flame should never be used. Also proper LPG plant layout should be enhanced to ensure hazard-free production process and the inherent safety should be strictly adhered to during plant design.
Safety is everyone’s responsibility, LPG must create very safe environment for its workers and consumers and environment. Proper working tools and equipment should be used in the production and operations work procedures must be sued. Staff training must be regular. Fire extinguishers must be provided at strategic point for use. Job description must be written for every worker. Hazards should be spelled in time and removed.
Minimum standard for equipment, raw materials, buildings, products, processes must be set.
In short a good production and managing practice must be in place to guarantee safety for all.
Possibility of major fire outbreak can be minimized by
-good plant design and layout
-good operating practice
-proper instruction and training of personnel in routine and emergency operations.
Fire service will be contacted from conception to design, construction and eventual plant operation. Fire training is mandatory and notices setting out emergency procedures displayed. Hydrant systems are mandatory (sprays, hyraut points, quick-fits and 1.9mm hose zeels). Also adequate supply is necessary.
Typically 2x7kg dray powder extinguishers, liquid minimum for installations and Load tankers.
LOADING AND UNLOADING FACILITIES
Written instruction should be given which deals define responsibilities for all personnel involved. Standard procedures must be followed.
The tank of the tankers must be electrically bonded to the fixed installation prior to LPG transfer.
Commissioning and decommissioning of LPG vessels should only be undertaken by personnel familiar with the procedures and aware of the hazards of LPG.